Brazilian Children’s Dietary Intake in Relation to Brazil’s New Nutrition Guidelines: a Systematic Review
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Purpose of Review
This systematic review reports the latest scientific evidence, from cross-sectional and cohort studies, describing the dietary intake of children and adolescents from Brazil. The goal of the review was to describe intakes according to Brazil’s new food classification system (NOVA) which classifies foods according to the degree of processing, i.e., unprocessed/minimally processed, processed culinary ingredients, processed food, and ultra-processed food. Due to a paucity of data using the NOVA classification system, studies with other intake descriptors were included.
Results using the NOVA system showed a somewhat high intake of (ultra-)processed items, than of minimally processed items. Studies using other methods of dietary assessment showed not only high intake of sources rich in fat, sugar, and sodium, most of them processed items (e.g., savory snacks and sweets) but also intake of fruit, vegetables, and whole grains. Overall, the literature was marred by inconsistencies and variation in study definitions and methods making it hard to make firm conclusions regarding the dietary intake of Brazilian children.
The development of tools to evaluate the complexities of dietary intake is much needed. Such a tool needs to be accepted and adopted by numerous study groups, to describe dietary status among Brazilian children and devise the most effective, and to evaluate the success of nutrition education programs.
KeywordsDiet Children Adolescents Brazil Review NOVA
Compliance with Ethical Standards
Conflict of Interest
Ana Carolina Barco Leme declares that she has no conflict of interest.
Regina Mara Fisberg declares that she has no conflict of interest.
Debbe Thompson declares that she has no conflict of interest.
Sonia Tucunduva Philippi declares that she has no conflict of interest.
Theresa Nicklas served as chair of a workshop sponsored by the Nestlé Nutrition Institute (Switzerland) and received reimbursement for travel expenses as well as an honorarium for her participation. She has also received compensation for proposals, manuscripts, and presentations contributed to Nutrition Impact, LLC.
Tom Baranowski declares that he has no conflict of interest.
Human and Animal Rights and Informed Consent
This article does not contain any studies with human or animal subjects performed by any of the authors.
Papers of particular interest, published recently, have been highlighted as: • Of importance •• Of major importance
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