Ketogenic Diet: an Endocrinologist Perspective

  • Aravind Reddy Kuchkuntla
  • Meera Shah
  • Saketh Velapati
  • Victoria M. Gershuni
  • Tamim Rajjo
  • Sanjeev Nanda
  • Ryan T. Hurt
  • Manpreet S. MundiEmail author
Gastroenterology, Critical Care, and Lifestyle Medicine (SA McClave, Section Editor)
Part of the following topical collections:
  1. Topical Collection on Gastroenterology, Critical Care, and Lifestyle Medicine


Purpose of Review

Obesity and its related comorbidities make up a large part of healthcare expenditures. Despite a wide array of options for treatment of obesity, rates of sustained weight loss continue to be low, leading patients to seek alternative treatment options. Although the first medically utilized ketogenic diet was described nearly 100 years ago, it has made a resurgence as a treatment option for obesity. Despite increased popularity in the lay public and increased use of ketogenic dietary strategies for metabolic therapy, we are still beginning to unravel the metabolic impact of long-term dietary ketosis.

Recent Findings

There are a number of recent trials that have highlighted the short- and long-term benefits of ketogenic diet on weight, glycemic control, and other endocrine functions including reproductive hormones.


This review is a summary of available data on the effectiveness and durability of the ketogenic diet when compared to conventional interventions. Ketogenic dietary strategies may play a role in short-term improvement of important metabolic parameters with potential for long-term benefit. However, response may vary due to inter-individual ability to maintain long-term carbohydrate restriction.


Obesity Diabetes Ketogenic diet Weight loss 


Author Contributions

Manpreet Mundi and Ryan Hurt formulated an outline of the manuscript. Aravind Kuchkuntla created the first draft. Manpreet Mundi, Meera Shah, Aravind Kuchkuntla, Saketh Velapati, Victoria Gershuni, Tamim Rajjo, Sanjeev Nanda, and Ryan Hurt critically revised the manuscript. All authors agree to be responsible for its content.

Compliance with Ethical Standards

Conflict of Interest

Aravind Reddy Kuchkuntla declares that he has no conflict of interest.

Meera Shah declares that she has no conflict of interest.

Saketh Velapati declares that he has no conflict of interest.

Victoria M. Gershuni declares that she has no conflict of interest.

Tamim Rajjo declares that he has no conflict of interest.

Sanjeev Nanda declares that he has no conflict of interest.

Ryan T. Hurt has served as a consultant for Nestlé.

Manpreet S. Mundi has received research funding from Fresenius Kabi, Nestlé, and Real Food Blends.

Human and Animal Rights and Informed Consent

This article does not contain any studies with human or animal subjects performed by any of the authors.


Papers of particular interest, published recently, have been highlighted as: • Of importance •• Of major importance

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Copyright information

© Springer Science+Business Media, LLC, part of Springer Nature 2019

Authors and Affiliations

  • Aravind Reddy Kuchkuntla
    • 1
  • Meera Shah
    • 2
  • Saketh Velapati
    • 2
  • Victoria M. Gershuni
    • 3
  • Tamim Rajjo
    • 1
  • Sanjeev Nanda
    • 4
  • Ryan T. Hurt
    • 2
    • 4
    • 5
  • Manpreet S. Mundi
    • 2
    Email author
  1. 1.Department of Family MedicineMayo ClinicRochesterUSA
  2. 2.Division of Endocrinology, Diabetes, Metabolism, and NutritionMayo ClinicRochesterUSA
  3. 3.Department of SurgeryHospital of the University of PennsylvaniaPhiladelphiaUSA
  4. 4.Division of General Internal MedicineMayo ClinicRochesterUSA
  5. 5.Division of GastroenterologyMayo ClinicRochesterUSA

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