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Current Pulmonology Reports

, Volume 7, Issue 4, pp 133–148 | Cite as

Connective Tissue Related Interstitial Lung Disease

  • Abhishek Gadre
  • Kristin B. Highland
Interstitial Lung Disease (A. Hajari Case, Section Editor)
  • 52 Downloads
Part of the following topical collections:
  1. Topical Collection on Interstitial Lung Disease

Abstract

Purpose of Review

Interstitial lung disease (ILD) is a common complication of the connective tissue diseases (CTD) and results in significant morbidity and mortality. This review will focus on recent literature pertaining to the epidemiology, clinical presentation, diagnosis, and treatment of CTD-ILD.

Recent Findings

Subclinical ILD can be found in the majority of patients with CTD. Clinically significant ILD is most commonly seen in scleroderma followed by polymyositis/dermatomyositis and rheumatoid arthritis, although it can occur in all of the CTDs. Nonspecific interstitial pneumonia is the most common radiographic and histologic pattern, although usual interstitial pneumonia occurs more frequently in rheumatoid arthritis. Pathogenesis is likely related to a combination of autoimmunity/inflammation, disordered fibrogenesis, and vascular injury. Treatment strategies are evolving to target all three of these pathways.

Summary

Although further research into treatment strategies is needed, the clinician should be aware of the risk factors and clinical presentation of ILD in the various CTDs in order to identify patients who should be screened and/or have modifications in treatment strategies in order to mitigate the morbidity and mortality associated with CTD-ILD.

Keywords

Interstitial lung disease IPAF Scleroderma Dermatomyositis Polymyositis Rheumatoid arthritis Sjögren’s syndrome Systemic lupus erythematosus 

Abbreviations

6MWT

Six-minute walk test

AIP

Acute interstitial pneumonia

ALP

Acute lupus pneumonitis

ANA

Antinuclear antibody

AZA

Azathioprine

BAL

Bronchoalveolar lavage

CCP

Cyclic citrullinated peptide

CRP

C-Reactive protein

CTD

Connective tissue disease

CYC

Cyclophosphamide

DLCO

Diffusion limitation of carbon monoxide

DM

Dermatomyositis

ESR

Erythrocyte sedimentation rate

FVC

Forced vital capacity

HRCT

High resolution computed tomography of the chest

HSCT

Hematopoietic stem cell transplantation

IIM

Idiopathic inflammatory myopathies

ILD

Interstitial lung disease

IPAF

Interstitial pneumonia with autoimmune features

IPF

Idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis

JVD

Jugular venous distension

LIP

Lymphocytic interstitial pneumonia

MCTD

Mixed connective tissue disease

MMF

Mycophenolate mofetil

NSIP

Nonspecific interstitial pneumonia

OP

Organizing pneumonia

PAH

Pulmonary arterial hypertension

PFT

Pulmonary function test

PH

Pulmonary hypertension

PM

Polymyositis

RA

Rheumatoid arthritis

SLE

Systemic lupus erythematosus

SS

Sjögren’s syndrome

TLC

Total lung capacity

TPMT

Thiopurine methyltransferase levels

TR

Tricuspid regurgitation murmur

ab

Antibody

UCTD

Undifferentiated connective tissue disease

UIP

Usual interstitial pneumonia

Notes

Compliance with Ethical Standards

Conflict of Interest

Abhishek Gadre declares no conflict of interest. Highland receives grants/contracts, does consulting, and/or is on the Speaker’s Bureau of Actelion Pharmaceuticals, Bayer Healthcare, Boehringer Ingelheim, Eiger Pharmaceuticals, Gilead Sciences, Reata Pharmaceuticals, and United Therapeutics. Dr. Highland is the global coordinating investigator for the SENSCIS trial (nintedanib versus placebo for scleroderma associated lung disease). She is also a consultant for Boehringer Ingelheim and is on their Speaker’s Bureau. She is also a consultant for Boehringer Ingelheim and is on their Speaker’s Bureau.

Human and Animal Rights and Informed Consent

This article does not contain any studies with human or animal subjects performed by any of the authors.

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Copyright information

© Springer Science+Business Media, LLC, part of Springer Nature 2018

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Division of Pulmonary and Critical Care MedicineUniversity of California San DiegoLa JollaUSA
  2. 2.Cleveland Clinic FoundationRespiratory InstituteClevelandUSA

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