Oriental Pharmacy and Experimental Medicine

, Volume 19, Issue 4, pp 455–467 | Cite as

Development of standardization parameters of crude drugs used in Ayurvedic Balarista formulation

  • Chandan Das
  • Anindya Bose
  • Subrata Mallick
  • Debajyoti DasEmail author
Research Article


‘Balarista’ is an important Ayurvedic arista formulation containing twelve crude drugs among which Sida cordifolia and Withania somnifera are the two major drugs. The Ayurvedic Formulary of India mentions various usages of Balarista, but it is mainly used in the treatment of rheumatoid arthritis. This study deals with the evaluation of pharmacognostic and physico-chemical properties of all incorporated drugs along with the HPLC and GC–MS analysis of the two main drugs. The macroscopic, microscopic, powder microscopy and physico-chemical parameters of different drugs were assessed according to the Ayurvedic Pharmacopoea of India. The scanning electron microscopic study, fluorescence analysis and powder behavior studies of various drugs in powder form were also carried out. The quantification of vasicine and total withanolides were analyzed in chloroform extract of Sida cordifolia and Withania somnifera root by HPLC method. Further, presences of other phytoconstituents were also confirmed by GC–MS analysis. The macroscopical, organoleptic, histological, powder characteristics and scanning electron microscopic images of various drugs revealed the important diagnostic features. The physico-chemical, fluorescence analysis and powder behavior characteristics provided useful tools to differentiate them from the adulterants. The HPLC analysis detected percentage of vasicine and total withanolide (withanoside IV, withanoside V, withaferin A, 12-Deoxy withastramonolide, withanolide A and withanolide B) in Sida cordifolia and Withania somnifera root respectively. GC–MS analysis identified fifty bioactive compounds in both the drugs. The pharmacognostical, physico-chemical and chromatographic assessment of these medicinally important plant drugs could be helpful for their authentication and in ensuring the quality of Balarista formulation.


Pharmacognostic Physico-chemical parameters Scanning electron microscope HPLC GC–MS 



The authors are grateful to the Dean of School of Pharmaceutical Sciences, Siksha ‘o’ Anusandhan Deemed to be University for providing all facilities and encouragement throughout the work.

Compliance with ethical standards

Ethical statement

This article does not contain any studies with human participants or animals performed by any of the authors.

Conflict of interest

Chandan Das has no conflict of interest. Anindya Bose has no conflict of interest. Subrata Mallick has no conflict of interest. Debajyoti Das has no conflict of interest.

Supplementary material

13596_2019_386_MOESM1_ESM.docx (8.1 mb)
Supplementary material 1 (DOCX 8250 kb)
13596_2019_386_MOESM2_ESM.docx (58 kb)
Supplementary material 2 (DOCX 57 kb)


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Copyright information

© Institute of Korean Medicine, Kyung Hee University 2019

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Department of Pharmacognosy, School of Pharmaceutical SciencesSiksha ‘O’ Anusandhan, Deemed to be UniversityBhubaneswarIndia

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