The effect of Elsholtzia densa methanolic extract modulates inflammation in vitro and in vivo

  • Ovais Ahmad Zargar
  • Rohina Bashir
  • Showkat Ahmad Ganie
  • Rabia HamidEmail author
Research Article


Inflammatory diseases being one of the back bending global burden are alarming the world. Established anti-inflammatory drugs exert side-effects, demanding for the development of alternative drugs, likely from natural source because of their diverse chemical nature. The anti-inflammatory activity of aerial part methanol extract of Elsholtzia densa collected from the natural forest of Naranag area of Kashmir valley was evaluated both in vitro and in vivo model systems using Macrophages RAW 264.7 cells and acute (carrageenan and histamine-induced rat paw edema) and chronic model (formaldehyde induced arthritis) respectively. The EDM extract exhibited a significant decline in the paw volume being at par with the standard drug Diclofenac (10 mg/kg) as compared with the control group. The reduction was observed in dose dependent manner with 300 mg/kg resulting in 27.27% and 100 mg/kg in 16.88% inhibition at 3rd h. A statistically significant (p < 0.05) decline in the secretion of serum pro-inflammatory cytokines like TNF-α, IL-1 β and IL-6 was found with 80.93%, 75.33% and 67.09%, and 83.25%, 62.11% and 66.69% in EDM-300 as compared with the carrageenan and histamine group respectively. The pro-inflammatory cytokines levels showed clampdown in LPS stimulated RAW264.7 by the extract treatments. The LC–MS data revealed the presence of Quercetin 3-glycosides, Apigenin 7-(2″-acetyl-6″-methylglucuronide) and betulinic acid as major compounds present in EDM extract. Results obtained from in vivo experiments demonstrate that oral administration of EDM extract significantly attenuated inflammation in carrageenan and histamine-induced paw edema, and improved chronic models (formaldehyde induced arthritis).


Elsholtzia densa RAW264.7 Carrageenan Diclofenac Cytokine Arthritis 



The author would like to acknowledge Department of Biochemistry (DST-FIST assisted), University of Kashmir and DBT-Ministry of Science and Technology, India for the financial support throughout the study.

Compliance with ethical standards

Ethical statement

All applicable international, national, and/or institutional guidelines for the care and use of animals were followed. All procedures performed in studies involving animals were in accordance with the ethical standards of the Animal Ethics Committee, University of Kashmir Srinagar (No.: F(IAEA-APPROVAL)KU/2015/10).

Conflict of interest

This manuscript described has not been published before; not under consideration for publication anywhere else; and has been approved by all co-authors.


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Copyright information

© Institute of Korean Medicine, Kyung Hee University and Springer Science+Business Media B.V., part of Springer Nature 2018

Authors and Affiliations

  • Ovais Ahmad Zargar
    • 1
  • Rohina Bashir
    • 1
  • Showkat Ahmad Ganie
    • 1
  • Rabia Hamid
    • 1
    Email author
  1. 1.Department of BiochemistryUniversity of KashmirSrinagarIndia

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