Quercus suber forest and Pinus plantations show different post-fire resilience in Mediterranean north-western Africa

  • Brahim CherguiEmail author
  • Soumia Fahd
  • Xavier Santos
Research Paper
Part of the following topical collections:
  1. Mediterranean Pines


Key message

In the African rim of the Western Mediterranean Basin, cork oak forests and pine plantations coexist. Under similar fire regimes, cork oak forest is more resilient in terms of habitat structure (canopy, understory, and complexity of vegetation strata) than pine plantation. By contrast, both woodland types show similar resilience in plant species composition. Resilience in habitat structure varies between the two woodland types because of the resprouting and seeding strategies of cork oak and pine species, respectively. These differences can be relevant for the conservation of biodiversity of forested ecosystems in a future scenario of increased fire frequency and scale in the Mediterranean basin.


Wildfires have major impacts on ecosystems globally. In fire-prone regions, plant species have developed adaptive traits (resprouting and seeding) to survive and persist due to long evolutionary coexistence with fire. In the African rim of the Western Mediterranean Basin, cork oak forest and pine plantation are the most frequently burnt woodlands. Both species have different strategies to respond fire: cork oak is a resprouter while pines are mostly seeders.


We have examined the hypothesis that pine plantations are less resilient in habitat structure (canopy, understory, diversity of vegetation strata) and plant composition than cork oak woodlands.


The habitat structure and plant species composition were measured in 30 burnt and 30 unburnt 700-m transects at 12 burnt sites from north-western Africa, where the two forest types can coexist. Habitat structure and plant species composition were compared between burnt and unburnt transects from cork oak and pine plantation woodlands with generalized linear mixed models and general linear models.


The results showed significant interaction effect of fire and forest type, since cork oak forest was more resilient to fire than was pine plantation in habitat structure. By contrast, both forest types were resilient to fire in the composition of the plant communities, i.e., plant composition prior to fire did not change afterwards.


The higher structural resilience of cork oak forest compared to pine plantation is related to the resprouting and seeding strategies, respectively, of the dominant tree species. Differences in the responses to fire need to be considered in conservation planning for the maintenance of the Mediterranean biodiversity in a future scenario of changes in fire regime.


Cork oak forest Pine plantation Fire Habitat structure Resilience Rif Mediterranean basin 



We wish to thank Professor Mohamed Kadiri, Director of the Applied Botanical Laboratory (Biology Department, Abdelmalek Essaâdi University), for helping on the identification of plant species. Also, we would like to thanks Juli Pausas and Xavier Santos for their revisions of an early version of the manuscript. In addition, we are grateful to Saúl Yubero for their kindness and help in the field work.


This study was partially financed by the Instituto de Estudio Ceuties (research grant 2015-1).

Compliance with ethical standards

Conflict of interest

The authors declare that they have no conflict of interest.

Supplementary material

13595_2018_742_MOESM1_ESM.xlsx (22 kb)
ESM 1 (XLSX 22 kb)
13595_2018_742_MOESM2_ESM.docx (41 kb)
ESM 2 (DOCX 32 kb)


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Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Equipe de Recherche Ecologie, Systématique, Conservation de la Biodiversité, Faculté des Sciences de TétouanUniversité Abdelmalek EssaâdiTétouanMorocco
  2. 2.CIBIO/InBIOCentro de Investigação em Biodiversidade e Recursos Genéticos da Universidade do PortoVairãoPortugal

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