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Dairy Science & Technology

, Volume 94, Issue 1, pp 51–60 | Cite as

Contamination of raw milk with Bacillus cereus from farm to retail in Abidjan, Côte d’Ivoire and possible health implications

  • Bassa Antoine YobouetEmail author
  • Sylvie Mireille Kouamé-Sina
  • Adjéhi Dadié
  • Kohei Makita
  • Delia Grace
  • Koffi Marcellin Djè
  • Bassirou Bonfoh
Note

Abstract

In Africa, milk and dairy products play an important role in human nutrition but could represent a risk to human health, due to poor hygiene throughout the production chain. This study aimed firstly to assess the contamination of raw milk produced in traditional dairy farms in Abidjan with Bacillus cereus from farm to retail and secondly to assess the associated health risk for consumers in informal markets using a participatory approach. In total, 320 samples including 150 milk samples were collected in 15 purposively selected traditional dairy farms from four sites of Abidjan and analysed according to EN ISO 7932:2004 with slight modification. In addition, a survey was conducted in the three informal markets with 188 individuals who bought milk. B. cereus was found in 27% of the udder milk samples while 41% of the samples taken from seller’s pooled milk contained B. cereus. Out of the 183 milk consumers, 14% reported daily consumption of unheated milk, indicating the high probability of exposure to B. cereus and other foodborne illnesses. After milk consumption, 13% of consumers reported that they contracted a foodborne illness. In conclusion, milk produced and sold in informal markets in Abidjan represents a risk for consumers’ health and B. cereus is one possible cause. Milk quality could be improved by good hygiene practices, strengthening and targeting educational interventions and effective monitoring throughout the production and delivery chain.

Keywords

Raw milk Bacillus cereus Risk Health Abidjan 

Notes

Acknowledgments

The present study was conducted under the Safe Food Fair Food project of the International Livestock Research Institute and funded jointly by the German Federal Ministry of International Cooperation (GIZ), the Programme d’Appui Stratégique à la Recherche Scientifique en Côte d’Ivoire, the Centre Suisse de Recherches Scientifiques en Côte d’Ivoire, the Federal Commission for Scholarships for Foreign Students of the Swiss Confederation (ref. 2010.0197/Ivory Coast/OP) and by ETH Zürich through the laboratory of food biotechnology. We sincerely thank all partners. The management team and laboratory staff at the CSRS and all participating farmers are gratefully acknowledged. Finally, we thank Professor Christophe Lacroix and Professor Leo Meile who kindly welcomed the primary author in the Laboratory of Food Biotechnology at the ETH and Ms. Kristina Rosel, Dr. Solenne Costard and Dr. Anna Dean for their support during the drafting of this manuscript

Conflict of interest

There is no conflict of interest concerning this manuscript.

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Copyright information

© INRA and Springer-Verlag France 2013

Authors and Affiliations

  • Bassa Antoine Yobouet
    • 1
    • 2
    Email author
  • Sylvie Mireille Kouamé-Sina
    • 1
    • 2
  • Adjéhi Dadié
    • 1
  • Kohei Makita
    • 3
    • 4
  • Delia Grace
    • 3
  • Koffi Marcellin Djè
    • 1
  • Bassirou Bonfoh
    • 2
  1. 1.Department of Food Science and Technology, Laboratory of Biotechnology and Food MicrobiologyUniversity of Nangui AbrogouaAbidjan 02Côte d’Ivoire
  2. 2.Environment and Health DepartmentCentre Suisse de Recherches Scientifiques en Côte d’IvoireAbidjan 01Côte d’Ivoire
  3. 3.International Livestock Research Institute (ILRI)NairobiKenya
  4. 4.Rakuno Gakuen UniversityEbetsuJapan

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