Boron nutrition of rice in different production systems. A review

  • Atique-ur-Rehman
  • Muhammad FarooqEmail author
  • Abdul Rashid
  • Faisal Nadeem
  • Sabine Stuerz
  • Folkard Asch
  • Richard W. Bell
  • Kadambot H. M. Siddique
Review Article
Part of the following topical collections:
  1. Fertilisation


Half of the world’s population—more than 3.5 billion people—depend on rice for more than 20% of their daily energy requirements. Rice productivity is under threat for several reasons, particularly the deficiency of micronutrients, such as boron (B). Most rice-based cropping systems, including rice–wheat, are facing B deficiency as they are often practiced on high pH and alkaline soils with low B contents, low soil organic matter, and inadequate use of B fertilizer, which restricts the availability, uptake, and deposition of B into grains. Farmers’ reluctance to fertilize rice fields with B—due to the lack of cost-effective B-enriched macronutrient fertilizers—further exacerbates B deficiency in rice-based cropping systems. Here we review that, (i) while rice can tolerate excess B, its deficiency induces nutritional disorders, limits rice productivity, impairs grain quality, and affects the long-term sustainability of rice production systems. (ii) As B dynamics in the soil varies between flooded and aerobic rice systems, different B deficiency management strategies are needed in rice-based cropping systems. (iii) Correct diagnosis of B deficiency/toxicity in rice; understanding its interaction with other nutrients including nitrogen, phosphorus, potassium, and calcium; and the availability and application of B fertilizers using effective methods will help to improve the sustainability and productivity of different rice production systems. (iv) Research on rice-based systems should focus on breeding approaches, including marker-assisted selection and wide hybridization (incorporation of desirable genes), and biotechnological strategies, such as next-generation DNA and RNA sequencing, and genetic transformations to develop rice genotypes with improved B contents and abilities to acquire B from the soil. (v) Different B application strategies—seed priming and foliar and/or soil application—should be included to improve the performance of rice, particularly when grown under aerobic conditions.


Boron Breeding Molecular biology Plant physiology Rice-based production systems 


Funding information

Financial support provided by the Higher Education Commission of Pakistan for the study is highly acknowledged.


  1. Abbas M, Zahida TM, Uddin R, Sajjid I, Akhlaq A, Moheyuddin K, Salahuddin J, Mari AH, Panhwar RN (2013) Effect of zinc and boron fertilizers application on some physicochemical attributes of five rice varieties grown in agro-ecosystem of Sindh, Pakistan. American-Eurasian J Agric Environ Sci 13:433–439Google Scholar
  2. Ahmad R, Irshad M (2011) Effect of boron application time on yield of wheat, rice and cotton crop in Pakistan. Soil Environ 30:50–57Google Scholar
  3. Ahmad W, Niaz A, Kanwal S, Rahmatullah, Rasheed MK (2009) Role of boron in plant growth: a review. J Agric Res 47:1122–1134Google Scholar
  4. Ahmad W, Zia MH, Malhi SS, Niaz A, Saifullah (2012) Boron deficiency in soils and crops: a review. In: Goyal A (Ed.) Crop plant. InTech, London, UK, pp 77–114Google Scholar
  5. Anonymous (1998) Micronutrients in agriculture: Pakistani perspective. Islamabad (Pakistan): National Fertilizer Development Center, IslamabadGoogle Scholar
  6. Aslam M, Mahmood IH, Qureshi RH, Nawaz S, Akhtar J (2002) Salinity tolerance of rice as affected by boron nutrition. Pak J Soil Sci 21:110–118Google Scholar
  7. Bassil E, Hu H, Brown PH (2004) Use of phenylboronic acids to investigate boron function in plants. Possible role of boron in transvacuolar cytoplasmic strands and cell-to-wall adhesion. Plant Physiol 136:3383–3395PubMedCrossRefPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  8. Bell RW (1997) Diagnosis and prediction of boron deficiency for plant production. Plant Soil 193:149–168CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  9. Bell RW, Dell B (2008) Micronutrients for sustainable food, feed, fiber and bioenergy production, 1st edn. IFA, ParisGoogle Scholar
  10. Bergmann W (1992) Nutritional disorders of plants. Gustav Fisher Verlag, StuttgartGoogle Scholar
  11. Bhatnagar RS, Attri SC, Mathur GS, Chaudhary RS (1979) Boron adsorption equilibrium in soils. Ann Arid Zone 18:86–95Google Scholar
  12. Bhuiyan NJ (1994) Crop production trends and need of sustainability in agriculture. Paper presented at the workshop on ‘Integrated Nutrient Management for Sustainable Agriculture, held at Soil Resource Development Institute, Dhaka, Bangladesh June 26–28Google Scholar
  13. Binghum FT (1973) Boron in cultivated soils and irrigation waters. Adv Chem 123:130–138CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  14. Blaser-Grill J, Knoppik D, Amberger A, Goldbach H (1989) Influence of boron on the membrane potential in Elodea densa and Helianthus annuus roots and H+ extrusion of suspension cultured Daucus carota cells. Plant Physiol 90:280–284PubMedCrossRefPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  15. Blevins DG, Lukaszewski KM (1998) Boron in plant structure and function. Annu Rev Plant Physiol Plant Mol Biol 49:481–500PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  16. Bolaños L, Brevin NJ, Bonilla I (1996) Effects of boron on Rhizobium-legume cell-surface interactions and nodule development. Plant Physiol 110:1249–1256PubMedCrossRefPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  17. Bolaños L, Lukaszewski K, Bonilla I, Blevins D (2004) Why boron? Plant Physiol Biochem 42:907–912PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  18. Bonilla I, El-Hamdaoui A, Bolaños L (2004) Boron and calcium increase Pisum sativum seed germination and seedling development under salt stress. Plant Soil 267:97–107CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  19. Bouman BAM, Tuong TP (2001) Field water management to save water and increase its productivity in irrigated rice. Agric Water Manag 49:11–30CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  20. Bouman BAM, Peng S, Castañeda AR, Visperas RM (2005) Yield and water use of irrigated tropical aerobic rice systems. Agric Water Manag 74:87–105CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  21. Bowen JE (1972) Effect of environmental factors on water utilisation and boron accumulation and translocation in sugarcane. Plant Cell Physiol 13:703–714Google Scholar
  22. Brenchley WE, Thornton HG (1925) The relation between the development, structure and functioning of the nodules on Vicia uba, as influenced by the presence or absence of boron in the nutrient medium. Proc R Soc Lond B Biol Sci 498:373–398CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  23. Brown PH, Shelp BJ (1997) Boron mobility in plants. Plant Soil 193:85–101CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  24. Brown PH, Bellaloui N, Wimmer MA, Bassil ES, Ruiz J, Hu H, Pfeffer H, Dannel F, Römheld V (2002) Boron in plant biology. Plant Biol 4:211–229CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  25. Butterwick L, Oude ND, Raymond K (1989) Safety assessment of boron in aquatic and terrestrial environments. Ecotoxicol Environ Saf 17:339–371PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  26. Cakmak I, Römheld V (1997) Boron deficiency-induced impairments of cellular functions in plants. Plant Soil 193:71–83CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  27. Chapman HD, Vaselow AP (1955) Boron deficiency and excess. Calif Citrogr 40:455–457Google Scholar
  28. Chatterjee C, Sinha P, Agarwala SC (1990) Interactive effect of boron and phosphorus on growth and metabolism of maize grown in refined sand. Can J Plant Sc 70:455–460CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  29. Chaudhry FM, Latif A, Sharif M, Rashid A, Alam SM (1976) Response of the rice varieties to field application of micronutrient fertilizers. Pakistan J Sci Indus Res 19:134–139Google Scholar
  30. Chen X, Schauder S, Potier N, Van Dorsselaer A, Pelczer I, Bassler B, Hughson FM (2002) Structural identification of a bacterial quorum-sensing signal containing boron. Nature 415:545–549PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  31. Coulthurst SJ, Whitehead NA, Welch M, Salmond GPC (2002) Can boron get bacteria talking? Trends Biochem Sci 27:217–219PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  32. Darvill A, McNeil M, Albersheim P, Delmer DP (1980) The primary cell wall of flowering plants. In: Tolbert NE, Corn PK, Eric E, Stumph PK, Conn EE (eds) The biochemistry of plants. A comprehensive treatise. Academic, New York, pp 91–161Google Scholar
  33. Das SK (2014) Role of micronutrient in rice cultivation and management strategy in organic agriculture—a reappraisal. Agric Sci 5:765–769Google Scholar
  34. De Datta SK (1981) Principles and practices of rice production. Wiley, New YorkGoogle Scholar
  35. Dell B, Huang L (1997) Physiological response of plants to low boron. Plant Soil 193:103–120CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  36. Depar N, Rajpar I, Memon MY, Imtiaz M, Zia-ul-Hassan (2011) Mineral nutrient densities in some domestic and exotic rice genotypes. Pak J Agric Agril Eng Vet Sci 27:134–142Google Scholar
  37. Diana G (2006) Boron in the soil, from deficit to toxicity. Informatore Agrario 62:54–58Google Scholar
  38. Diaz FJ, Grattan SR (2009) Performance of tall wheatgrass (Thinopyrum ponticum, cv. ‘Jose’) irrigated with saline-high boron drainage water: implications on ruminant mineral nutrition. Agric Ecosyst Environ 131:128–136CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  39. Dixit D, Srivastava NK, Sharma S (2002) Boron deficiency induced changes in translocation of 14CO2-photosynthate into primary metabolites in relation to essential oil and curcumin accumulation in turmeric (Curcuma longa L.). Photosynthetica 40:109–113CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  40. Dordas C, Brown PH (2000) Permeability of boric acid across lipid bilayers and factors affecting it. J Membr Biol 175:95–105PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  41. Dugger WM (1983) Boron in plant metabolism. In: Laèuchli A, Bieleski RL (eds) Inorganic plant nutrition. Encyclopedia of plant physiology. Springer, Berlin, pp 626–650Google Scholar
  42. Dunn D, Stevens G, Kending A (2005) Boron fertilization of rice with soil and foliar applications. Online Crop Manag. CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  43. Eck P, Campbell FJ (1962) Effect of high calcium application on boron tolerance of carnation, Dianthus caryophyllus. Am Soc Hort Sci Proc 81:510–517Google Scholar
  44. Eghball B, Ginting D, Gilley JE (2004) Residual effects of manure and compost applications on corn production and soil properties. Agron J 96:442–447CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  45. Elrashidi MA, O’Connor GA (1982) Boron sorption and desorption in soils. Soil Sci Soc Am J 46:27–31CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  46. El-Shintinawy F (2000) Structural and functional damage caused by boron deficiency in sunflower leaves. Photosynthetica 36:565–573CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  47. Fageria NK, Baligar VC (2003) Methodology for evaluation of lowland rice genotypes for nitrogen use efficiency. J Plant Nutr 26:1315–1333CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  48. FAO (2016) The state of food and agriculture, climate change, agriculture and food security. FAO, RomeGoogle Scholar
  49. Farooq M, Basra SMA, Wahid A (2006a) Priming of field-sown rice seed enhances germination, seedling establishment, allometry and yield. Plant Growth Regul 49:285–294CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  50. Farooq M, Basra SMA, Tabassum R, Afzal I (2006b) Enhancing the performance of direct seeded fine rice by seed priming. Plant Prod Sci 9:446–456CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  51. Farooq M, Basra SMA, Khalid M, Tabassum R, Mehmood T (2006c) Nutrient homeostasis, reserves metabolism and seedling vigor as affected by seed priming in coarse rice. Can J Bot 84:1196–1202CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  52. Farooq M, Basra SMA, Khan MB (2007a) Seed priming improves growth of nursery seedlings and yield of transplanted rice. Arch Agron Soil Sci 53:311–322CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  53. Farooq M, Basra SMA, Ahmad N (2007b) Improving the performance of transplanted rice by seed priming. Plant Growth Regul 51:129–137CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  54. Farooq M, Rehman A, Aziz T, Habib M (2011) Boron nutripriming improves the germination and early seedling growth of rice (Oryza sativa L.). J Plant Nutr 34:1507–1515. CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  55. Fleischer A, O’Neill MA, Ehwald R (1999) The pore size of non-graminaceous plant cell walls is rapidly decreased by borate ester cross-linking of the pectic polysaccharide rhamnogalacturonan II. Plant Physiol 121:829–838PubMedCrossRefPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  56. Furlani AMC, Carvalho CP, de Freitas JP, Verdial MF (2003) Wheat cultivar tolerance to boron deficiency and toxicity in nutrient solution. Sci Agric 60:359–370. CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  57. Gao S, Tanji KK, Scardaci SC, Chow AT (2002) Comparison of redox indicators in a paddy soil during rice growing season. Soil Sci Soc Am J 66:805–817CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  58. Gao XP, Zou CQ, Fan XY, Zhang FS, Hoffland E (2006) From flooded to aerobic conditions in rice cultivation: consequences for zinc uptake. Plant Soil 280:41–47. CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  59. Gao X, Hoffland E, Stomph TJ, Grant CA, Zou C, Zhang F (2012) Improving zinc bioavailability in transition from flooded to aerobic rice: a review. Agron Sustain Dev 32:465–478. CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  60. Goldbach HE, Wimmer MA (2007) Boron in plants and animals: is there a role beyond cell-wall structure? J Plant Nutr Soil Sci 170:39–48. CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  61. Goldbach HE, Yu Q, Wingender R, Schulz M, Wimmer M, Findeklee P, Baluska F (2001) Rapid response reactions of roots to boron deprivation. J Plant Nutr Soil Sci 164:173–181CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  62. Goldbach H, Huang L, Wimmer M (2007) Boron functions in plants and animals: recent advances in boron research and open questions. In: Xu F, Goldbach HE, Brown PH, Bell RW, Fujiwara T, Hunt CD, Goldberg S, Shi L (eds) Advances in plant and animal boron nutrition. Springer, Dordrecht, pp 3–25CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  63. Goldberg S (1997) Reactions of boron with soils. Plant Soil 193:35–48. CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  64. Goldberg S, Glaubig RA (1986) Boron adsorption on California soils. Soil Sci Soc Am J 50:1173–1176CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  65. Goldberg S, Corwin DL, Shouse PJ, Suarez DL (2005) Prediction of boron adsorption by field samples of diverse textures. Soil Sci Soc Am J 69:1379–1388CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  66. Goodwin M (2017) Urea fertilizers coated with plant available forms of boron. U.S. Patent Application 15/234:704Google Scholar
  67. Gowri S (2005) Physiological studies on aerobic rice (Oryza sativa L.). M.Sc. Thesis, Tamil Nadu Agriculture University, Coimbatore, IndiaGoogle Scholar
  68. GRiSP (Global Rice Science Partnership) (2013) Rice almanac, 4th edn. International Rice Research Institute, Los BañosGoogle Scholar
  69. Gu B, Lowe LE (1990) Studies on the adsorption of boron on humic acid. Can J Soil Sci 70:305–311CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  70. Günes A, Alpaslan M (2000) Boron uptake and toxicity in maize genotypes in relation to boron and phosphorus supply. J Plant Nutr 23:541–550. CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  71. Gupta UC (1968) Relationship of total and hot-water soluble boron, and fixation of added boron, to properties of Podzol soils. Soil Sci Soc Am Proc 32:45–48CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  72. Gupta UC (1979) Boron nutrition of crops. Adv Agron 31:273–307CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  73. Gupta UC (1993) Introduction. In: Gupta UC (ed) Boron and its role in crop production. CRC, Boca Raton, p 237Google Scholar
  74. Gupta PC, O’Toole JC (1986) Upland rice: a global perspective. International Rice Research Institute, ManilaGoogle Scholar
  75. Gupta UC, Sterling JDE, Nass HG (1973) Influence of various rates of compost and nitrogen on the boron toxicity symptoms in barley and wheat. Can J Plant Sci 53:451–456CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  76. Harris D, Tripathi RS, Joshi A (2002) On-farm seed priming to improve crop establishment and yield in dry direct-seeded rice. In: Pandey S, Mortimer M, Wade L, Tuong TP, Lopes K, Hardy B (eds) Direct seeding: research strategies and opportunities. International Research Institute, Manila, pp 231–240Google Scholar
  77. Havlin JL, Beaton JD, Tisdale SL, Nelson WL (1999) Soil fertility and fertilizers. Prentice-Hall, LondonGoogle Scholar
  78. Hellal FA, Taalab AS, Safaa AM (2009) Influence of nitrogen and boron nutrition on nutrient balance and sugar beet yield grown in calcareous soil. Ozean J Appl Sci 2:95–112Google Scholar
  79. Hou J, Evans LJ, Spiers GA (1994) Boron fractions in soils. Commun Soil Sci Plant Anal 25:1841–1853. CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  80. Hu H, Brown PH (1997) Absorption of boron by plant roots. Plant Soil 193:49–58. CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  81. Hu H, Brown PH, Labavitch JM (1996) Species variability in boron requirement is correlated with cell wall pectin. J Exp Bot 47:227–232CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  82. Huang J, Snapp SS (2009) Potassium and boron nutrition enhance fruit quality in Midwest fresh market tomatoes. Commun Soil Sci Plant Anal 40:1937–1952CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  83. Huang L, Pant J, Dell B, Bell RW (2000) Effects of boron deficiency on anther development and floret fertility in wheat (Triticum aestivum L. cv. Wilgoyne). Ann Bot 85:493–500CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  84. Huang L, Bell RW, Dell B (2001) Boron supply into wheat (Triticum aestivum L., cv. Wilgozne) ears whilst still enclosed within leaf sheaths. J Exp Bot 52:1731–1738PubMedGoogle Scholar
  85. Huang L, Ye Z, Bell RW, Dell B (2005) Boron nutrition and chilling tolerance of warm climate crop species. Ann Bot 96:755–767PubMedCrossRefPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  86. Huettl PJV (1976) The pH dependent sorption of boron by soil organic matter. M.Sc. thesis, University of Wisconsin, Madison, Wisconsin, USAGoogle Scholar
  87. Hussain M, Khan MA, Khan MB, Farooq M, Farooq S (2012) Boron application improves growth, yield and net economic return of rice. Rice Sci 19:259–262. CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  88. Isirimah NO, Dickson AA, Igwe C (2003) Introductory soil chemistry and biology for agriculture and biotechnology. OSIA International Publishers Ltd., Port HarcourtGoogle Scholar
  89. Ismail AM (2003) Response of maize and sorghum to excess boron and salinity. Biol Plantarum 47:313–316CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  90. Jame YW, Nickolaichuk W, Leyshon AJ, Campbell CA (1982) Boron concentration in the soil solution under irrigation. A theoretical analysis. Can J Soil Sci 62:461–470CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  91. Jasmund K, Lindner B (1973) Experiments on the fixation of boron by clay minerals. Proc Int Clay Conf 1972:399–412Google Scholar
  92. Jin J, Martens DC, Zelazny LW (1987) Distribution and plant availability of soil; boron fractions. Soil Sci Soc Am J 51:1228–1231CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  93. Jin JY, Martens DC, Zelazny LW (1988) Plant availability of applied and native boron in soils with diverse properties. Plant Soil 105:127–132. CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  94. Jones JB (2003) Plant mineral nutrition. In: Agronomic handbook: management of crops, soils and their fertility. CRC, Boca Raton, Boca Raton, FL, USA, p 325Google Scholar
  95. Jones JB Jr, Wolf B, Mills HA (1991) Plant analysis handbook: a practical sampling, preparation, analysis and interpretation guide. Micro-Macro Inc., AthensGoogle Scholar
  96. Jones WW, Embleton TW, Boswell SB, Steinacker ML, Lee BW, Barnhart EL (1963) Nitrogen control programme for oranges and high sulphate and/or high boron. Calif Citrogr 48:128–129Google Scholar
  97. Kastori R, Plesnicar M, Pankovic D, Sakac Z (1995) Photosynthesis, chlorophyll fluorescence and soluble carbohydrates in sunflower leaves as affected by boron deficiency. J Plant Nutr 18:1751–1763CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  98. Katyal JC, Singh B (1992) Availability of boron in the soil and its uptake by rice as influenced by soil moisture regimes. Oryza 29:384–387Google Scholar
  99. Kausar MA, Tahir M, Hamid A (1990) Comparison of three methods for the estimation of soil available boron for maize. Pak J Sci Ind Res 33:221–224Google Scholar
  100. Keren R, Bingham FT (1985) Boron in water, soil and plants. Adv Soil Sci 1:229–276CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  101. Keren R, Mezuman U (1981) Boron adsorption by clay minerals using a phenomenological equation. Clay Clay Miner 29:198–203CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  102. Keren R, Talpaz H (1984) Boron adsorption by montmorillonite as affected by particle size. Soil Sci Soc Am J 48:555–559CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  103. Keren R, Bingham FT, Rhoades JD (1985) Plant uptake of boron as affected by boron distribution between liquid and solid phases in soil. Soil Sci Soc Am J 49:297–302CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  104. Khan R, Gurmani AH, Gurmani AR, Zia MS (2006) Effect of boron application on rice yield under wheat–rice system. Int J Agric Biol 8:805–808Google Scholar
  105. Khan RU, Gurmani AR, Khan MS, Jalal-Ud-Din, Gurmani AH (2011) Residual, direct and cumulative effect of boron application on wheat and rice yield under rice-wheat system. Sar J Agric 27:219–223Google Scholar
  106. Kobayashi M, Ohno K, Matoh T (1997) Boron nutrition of cultured tobacco BY-2 cells. II. Characterisation of the boron polysaccharide complex. Plant Cell Physiol 38:676–683. CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  107. Kohorn BD, Kobayashi M, Johansen S, Friedman HP, Fischer A, Byers N (2006) Wall-associated kinase 1 (WAK1) is crosslinked in endomembranes, and transport to the cell surface requires correct cell-wall synthesis. J Cell Sci 119:2282–2290PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  108. Koohkan H, Maftoun M (2015) Effect of nitrogen on the alleviation of boron toxicity in rice (Oryza sativa L.). J Plant Nutr 38:1323–1335CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  109. Kumar S, Arora BR, Hundal HS (1981) Potassium–boron synergism in the nutrition of rice (Oryza sativa L.). J Indian Soc Soil Sci 29:563–564Google Scholar
  110. Lambert DH, Cole HC, Baker DE (1980) The role of boron in plant response to mycorrhizal infection. Plant Soil 57:431–438CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  111. Lehto L (1995) Boron retention in limed forestmor. For Ecol Manag 78:11–20. CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  112. Liu Z (1996) Soil microelement in China. Jiangsu Science Technical Press, Nanjiang, pp 25–47Google Scholar
  113. Lordkaew S, Konsaeng S, Jongjaidee J, Dell B, Rerkasem B, Jamjod S (2013) Variation in responses to boron in rice. Plant Soil 363:287–295CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  114. Lucas RE, Knezek BD (1972) Climatic and soil conditions promoting micronutrient deficiencies in plants. In: Mortvedt JJ et al (eds) Micronutrients in agriculture. Soil Science Society of America, Madison, pp 265–288Google Scholar
  115. Maclean JL, Dawe DC, Hardy B, Hettel CP (2002) Rice almanac, 3rd edn. CABI, WallingfordGoogle Scholar
  116. Mahler RL, Hammel JE, Harder RW (1985) The influence of crop rotation and tillage methods on the distribution of extractable boron in northern Idaho soils. Soil Sci 139CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  117. Marschner H (1995) Mineral nutrition of higher plants. Academic, San DiegoGoogle Scholar
  118. Masood S, Wimmer MA, Witzel K, Zörb C, Mühling KH (2012) Interactive effects of high boron and NaCl stresses on subcellular localization of chloride and boron in wheat leaves. J Agron Crop Sci 198:227–235CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  119. Matoh T (1997) Boron in plant cell walls. Plant Soil 193:59–70. CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  120. Matoh T, Kobayashi M (1998) Boron and calcium, essential inorganic constituents of pectic polysaccharides in higher plant cell walls. J Plant Res 111:179–190CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  121. Matoh T, Kawaguchi S, Kobayashi M (1996) Ubiquity of a borate-rhamnogalacturonan II complex in the cell walls of higher plants. Plant Cell Physiol 37:636–640CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  122. Matoh T, Takasaki M, Takabe K, Kobayashi M (1998) Immuno-cytochemistry of rhamnogalacturonan II in cell walls of higher plants. Plant Cell Physiol 39:483–491CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  123. Matsunaga T, Ishii T, Matsumoto S, Higuchi M, Darvill A, Albersheim P, O’Neill MA (2004) Occurrence of the primary cell wall polysaccharide rhamnogalacturonan II in pteridophytes, lycophytes, and bryophytes. Implications for the evolution of vascular plants. Plant Physiol 134:339–351PubMedCrossRefPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  124. Mattigod SV, Frampton JA, Lim CH (1985) Effect of ion-pair formation on boron adsorption by kaolinite. Clay Clay Miner 33:433–437CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  125. Mezuman U, Keren R (1981) Boron adsorption by soils using a phenomenological adsorption equation. Soil Sci Soc Am J 45:722–726CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  126. Middleton W, Jarvis BC, Booth A (1978) The boron requirement for root development in stem cuttings of Phaseolus aureus Roxb. New Phytol 81:287–298CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  127. Miwa K, Fujiwara T (2010) Boron transport in plants: co-ordinated regulation of transporters. Ann Bot 105:1103–1108PubMedCrossRefPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  128. Mortvedt JJ (1994) Boron diet essential for crops. Farm Chemicals, pp 2Google Scholar
  129. Nable RO, Banuelos GS, Paull JG (1997) Boron toxicity. Plant Soil 193:181–198CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  130. Nachiangmai D, Dell B, Bell RW, Huang L, Rerkasem B (2004) Enhanced boron transport into the ear of wheat as a mechanism for boron efficiency. Plant Soil 264:141–147CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  131. Nakagawa Y, Hanaoka H, Kobayashi M, Miyoshi K, Miwa K, Fujiwara T (2007) Cell-type specificity of the expression of OsBOR1, a rice efflux boron transporter gene, is regulated in response to boron availability for efficient boron uptake and xylem loading. Plant Cell 19:2624–2635. CrossRefPubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  132. Niaz A, Ranjha AM, Rahmatullah AH, Waqas M (2007) Boron status of soils as affected by different soil characteristics—pH, CaCO3, organic matter and clay contents. Pak J Agric Sci 44:428–435Google Scholar
  133. Nicholaichuk W, Leyshon AJ, Jame YW, Campbell CA (1988) Boron and salinity survey of irrigation projects and the boron adsorption characteristics of some Saskatchewan soils. Can J Soil Sci 68:77–90CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  134. Nieuwenhuis J, Bouman BAM, Castaneda A (2000) Crop–water responses of aerobically grown rice, preliminary results of pot experiments. In: Bouman BAM, Hengsdijk H, Hardy B, Bindraban PS, Tuong TP, Ladha JK (eds) Water wise rice production. Proceedings of a thematic workshop on water-wise rice production. 8–11 April 2002. IRRI Headquarters in Los Banos, Philippines, pp 177–186Google Scholar
  135. O’Neill MA, Ishii T, Albersheim P, Darvill AG (2004) Rhamnogalacturonan II: structure and function of a borate cross-linked cell wall pectic polysaccharide. Annu Rev Plant Biol 55:109–139. CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  136. Obermeyer G, Kriechbaumer R, Strasser D, Maschessning A, Bentrup FW (1996) Boric acid stimulates the plasma membrane H+-ATPase of ungerminated lily pollen grains. Physiol Plant 98:281–290CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  137. Okazaki E, Chao TT (1968) Boron adsorption and desorption by some Hawaiian soils. Soil Sci 105:255–259CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  138. Pandey DK, Pandey N (2008) Screening of wheat genotypes for their susceptibility to boron deficiency. Res Environ Life Sci 1:37–42Google Scholar
  139. Pandey S, Velasco LE (1999) Economics of alternative rice establishment methods in Asia: a strategic analysis. Discussion Paper, Social Sciences Division Discussion Paper, International Rice Research Institute, Los Baños, PhilippinesGoogle Scholar
  140. Parker DR, Gardner EH (1982) Factors affecting the mobility and plant availability of boron in some western Oregon soils. Soil Sci Soc Am J 46:573–578CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  141. Parks WL, White JL (1952) Boron retention by clays and humus systems saturated with various cations. Soil Sci Soc Am Proc 16:298–300CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  142. Patrick JW, Wareing PF (1973) Auxin-promoted transport of metabolites in stems of Phaseolus vulgaris L. J Exp Bot 24:1158–1167CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  143. Peterson LA, Newman RC (1976) Influence of soil pH on the availability of added boron. Soil Sci Soc Am J 40:280–282CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  144. Pinyerd CA, Odom JW, Long FL, Dane JH (1984) Boron movement in a Norfolk loamy sand. Soil Sci 137:428–433CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  145. Ponnamperuma FN, Yuan WL (1966) Toxicity of boron to rice. Nature 211:780CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  146. Power PP, Woods WG (1997) The chemistry of boron and its speciation in plants. Plant Soil 193:1–13CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  147. Prasad R (2011) Aerobic rice systems. Adv Agron 111:207–247. CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  148. Rao PR, Subrhamanyam D, Sailaja B, Singh RP, Ravichandran V, Rao GS, Swain P, Sharma SG, Saha S, Nadaradjan S, Reddy PJ (2013) Influence of boron on spikelet fertility under varied soil conditions in rice genotypes. J Plant Nutr 36:390–400CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  149. Rashid A (2006) Boron deficiency in soils and crops of Pakistan: diagnosis and management. Pakistan Agriculture Research Council, Islamabad 34 ppGoogle Scholar
  150. Rashid A, Rafique E, Bughio N (1994) Diagnosing boron deficiency in rapeseed and mustard by plant analysis and soil testing. Commun Soil Sci Plant Anal 25:2883–2897CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  151. Rashid A, Rafique E, Bughio N (1997) Micronutrient deficiencies in calcareous soils of Pakistan. III. Boron nutrition of sorghum. Commun Soil Sci Plant Anal 28:441–454CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  152. Rashid A, Muhammad S, Rafique E (2000) Genotypic variation in rice susceptibility to boron deficiency. Int Rice Res Notes 25(3):29–30Google Scholar
  153. Rashid A, Muhammad S, Rafique E (2002a) Genotypic variation in boron uptake and utilization by rice and wheat. In: Goldbach HE, Rerkasem B, Wimmer MA, Brown PH, Thellier M, Bell RW (eds) Boron in plant and animal nutrition. Kluwer Academic, New York, pp 305–310CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  154. Rashid A, Rafique E, Muhammed S, Bughio N (2002b) Boron deficiency in rainfed alkaline soils of Pakistan: incidence and genotypic variation in rapeseed-mustard. In: Goldbach HE, Rerkasem B, Wimmer MA, Brown PH, Thellier M, Bell RW (eds) Boron in plant and animal nutrition. Kluwer Academic/Plenum, New York, pp 363–370CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  155. Rashid A, Rafique E, Ryan J (2002c) Establishment and management of boron deficiency in field crops in Pakistan: a country report. In: Goldbach HE, Rerkasem B, Wimmer MA, Brown PH, Thellier M, Bell RW (eds) Boron in plant and animal nutrition. Kluwer Academic/Plenum, New York, pp 339–348CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  156. Rashid A, Yasin M, Ashraf M (2004) Boron deficiency in calcareous soil reduces rice yield and impairs grain quality. Inter Rice Res Notes 29:58–60Google Scholar
  157. Rashid A, Yasin M, Ali MA, Ahmad Z, Ullah R (2007) An alarming boron deficiency in calcareous rice soils of Pakistan: boron use improves yield and cooking quality. In: Xu F (ed) Advances in plant and animal boron nutrition. Proc 3rd international symposium on all aspects of plant and animal boron nutrition, Wuhan, China, 9–13 Sep 2005. Springer, Dordrecht, pp 103–116Google Scholar
  158. Rashid A, Rafique E, Bhatti AU, Ryan J, Bughio N, Yau SK (2011) Boron deficiency in rainfed wheat in Pakistan: incidence, spatial variability, and management strategies. J Plant Nutr 34:600–613. CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  159. Rashid A, Zia MH, Ahmad W (2017) Micronutrient fertilizer use in Pakistan and 4R nutrient stewardship. Pakistan Agricultural Research Council and National Fertilizer Development Center, Islamabad 223 ppGoogle Scholar
  160. Raven JA (1980) Short- and long-distance transport of boric acid in plants. New Phytol 84:231–249CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  161. Rawson HM (1996) Parameters likely to be associated with sterility. In: Rawson HM, Subedi KD (eds) Sterility in wheat in subtropical Asia: extent, causes and solutions. Proceedings of a workshop held from 18–21 September 1995, Lumle Agricultural Research Centre, Pokhara, Nepal. ACIAR Proceeding No. 72, pp 13–31Google Scholar
  162. Rehman A, Farooq M (2013) Boron application through seed coating improves the water relations, panicle fertility, kernel yield, and biofortification of fine grain aromatic rice. Acta Physiol Plant 35:411–418CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  163. Rehman A, Farooq M, Nawaz A, Iqbal S, Rehman A (2012a) Optimizing the boron seed coating treatments for improving the germination and early seedling growth of fine grain rice. Int J Agric Biol 14:453–456Google Scholar
  164. Rehman A, Farooq M, Cheema ZA, Wahid A (2012b) Seed priming with boron improves growth and yield of fine grain aromatic rice. Plant Growth Regul 68:189–201CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  165. Rehman A, Farooq M, Cheema ZA, Wahid A (2013) Role of boron in leaf elongation and tillering dynamics in fine-grain aromatic rice. J Plant Nutr 36:42–54. CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  166. Rehman A, Farooq M, Nawaz A, Ahmad R (2014a) Influence of boron nutrition on the rice productivity, kernel quality and biofortification in different production systems. Field Crops Res 169:123–131CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  167. Rehman A, Farooq M, Cheema ZA, Nawaz A, Wahid A (2014b) Foliage applied boron improves the panicle fertility, yield and biofortification of fine grain aromatic rice. J Soil Sci Plant Nutr 14:723–733Google Scholar
  168. Rehman A, Farooq M, Nawaz A, Rehman A, Iqbal S (2015) Soil application of boron improves the tillering, leaf elongation, panicle fertility, yield and its grain enrichment in fine-grain aromatic rice. J Plant Nutr 38:338–354CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  169. Rehman A, Farooq M, Nawaz A, Ahmad R (2016) Improving the performance of short duration basmati rice in water-saving production systems by boron nutrition. Ann Appl Biol 168:19–28CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  170. Reid RJ, Hayes JE, Post A, Stangoulis JCR, Graham RD (2004) A critical analysis of the causes of boron toxicity in plants. Plant Cell Environ 27:1405–1414CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  171. Renkou X, Zhao A, Li Q, Kong X, Ji G (2003) Acidity regime of the Red Soils in a subtropical region of southern China under field conditions. Geoderma 115:75–84CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  172. Rerkasem B, Jamjod S (1997) Genotypic variation in crop response to low boron and implications for plant breeding. Plant Soil 193:169–180CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  173. Rerkasem B, Jamjod S (2004) Boron deficiency in wheat: a review. Field Crop Res 89:173–186CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  174. Rerkasem B, Bell RW, Lordkaew S, Loneragan JF (1997) Relationship of seed boron concentration to germination and growth of soybean (Glycine max L. Merr.). Nut Cycl Agroecosyst 48:217–223CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  175. Reuhs BL, Glenn J, Stephens SB, Kim JS, Christie DB, Glushka JG, Zablackis E, Albersheim P, Darvill AG, O’Neill MA (2004) L-galactose replaces L-fucose in the pectic polysaccharide rhamnogalacturonan II synthesized by the L-fucose-deficient mur1 Arabidopsis mutant. Planta 219:147–157PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  176. Reuter DJ, Edwards DG, Wilhelm NS (1997) Temperate and tropical crops. In: Reuter DJ, Robinson JB (eds) Plant analysis: an interpretation manual, 2nd edn. CSIRO, Collingwood, pp 81–284Google Scholar
  177. Robertson GA, Loughman BC (1974) Modification of phosphate transport in Vicia faba by boron deficiency, growth regulators, and metabolic inhibitors. In: Zimmermann M, Dainty J (eds) Membrane transport in plants. Springer, New York, pp 444–449CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  178. Roth-Bejerano N, Itai C (1981) Effect of boron on stomatal opening in epidermis strips of Commelina communis. Physiol Plant 52:302–304CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  179. Ryden P, Sugimoto-Shirasu K, Smith AC, Findlay K, Reiter WD, McCann MC (2003) Tensile properties of Arabidopsis cell walls depend on both a xyloglucan cross-linked microfibrillar network and rhamnogalacturonan II-borate complexes. Plant Physiol 132:1033–1040PubMedCrossRefPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  180. Sahrawat KL (2005) Fertility and organic matter in submerged rice soils. Curr Sci 88:735–739Google Scholar
  181. Saleem M, Khanif YM, Ishak F, Samsuri AW (2009) Dissolution kinetics of boron fertilizers, boron release in soil and effect on rice. Proc. 4th Int. Boron Symp. 15–17 October, Eskisehir-Turkey, pp 467–471Google Scholar
  182. Saleem M, Khanif YM, Ishak F, Samsuri AW, Hafeez B (2011a) Importance of boron for agriculture productivity: a review. Inter Res J Agric Sci Soil Sci 1:293–300Google Scholar
  183. Saleem M, Khanif YM, Ishak YMF, Samsuri AW (2011b) Solubility and leaching of boron from borax and colemanite in flooded acidic soils. Commun Soil Sci Plant Anal 42:293–300CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  184. Saleem M, Khanif YM, Fauziah CI, Samsuri AW, Hafeez B (2013) Efficacy of crushed ore colemanite as boron fertilizer for rice grown under calcareous soil conditions. Pak J Agric Sci 50:37–42Google Scholar
  185. Samet H, Cikili Y, Dursun S (2015) The role of potassium in alleviating boron toxicity and combined effects on nutrient contents in pepper (Capsicum annuum L.). Bulgarian J Agric Sci 21:64–70Google Scholar
  186. Sarwar N, Ali H, Irfan M, Akhter MT, Ali MT (2016) Boron nutrition under intermittent flooding and drying condition seems sustainable nutrient management technique in rice. Cercetari Agronomice Moldova 49:17–27CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  187. Savithri P, Perumal R, Nagarajan R (1999) Soil and crop management technologies for enhancing rice production under micronutrient constraints. In: Balasubramanian V et al (eds) Resource management in rice systems: nutrients. Kluwer Academic, Dordrecht, pp 121–135CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  188. Schalscha EB, Bingham FT, Galindo GG, Galvan HP (1973) Boron adsorption by volcanic ash soils in southern Chile. Soil Sci Baltimore 116:70–76CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  189. Schon MK, Novacky A, Blevins DG (1990) Boron induces hyperpolarization of sunflower root cell membranes and increases membrane permeability to K+1. Plant Physiol 93:566–571PubMedCrossRefPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  190. Shafiq M, Maqsood T (2010) Response of rice to model based applied boron fertilizer. J Agric Res 48:303–314Google Scholar
  191. Shah JA, Memon MY, Aslam M, Nizamuddin D, Sial NA, Khan P (2011) Response of two rice varieties viz., khushboo-95 and mehak to different levels of boron. Pak J Bot 43:1021–1031Google Scholar
  192. Sharma PK, Nayyar VK (2004) Diagnosing micronutrient related constraints to productivity in Muktsar, Patiala, Hoshiarpur and Ludhiana Districts. Information technology for sustainable agriculture in Punjab (IT -SAP) UNDP-TIFAC sponsored project. Punjab Remote Sensing Centre. Ludhiana, Punjab, India, pp 1–18Google Scholar
  193. Sharma PN, Ramchandra T (1990) Water relations and photosynthesis in mustard plants subjected to boron deficiency. Indian J Plant Physiol 33:150–154Google Scholar
  194. Sharma KR, Srivastava PC, Ghosh D, Gangwar MS (1999) Effect of boron and farmyard manure application on growth, yields, and boron nutrition of sunflower. J Plant Nutr 22:633–640CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  195. Sharma KR, Srivastava PC, Srivastava P, Singh VP (2006) Effect of farmyard manure application on boron adsorption–desorption characteristics of some soils. Chemosphere 65:769–777PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  196. Shelp BJ (1988) Boron mobility and nutrition in broccoli (Brassica oleracea var. italica). Ann Bot 61:83–91CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  197. Shelp BJ (1990) The influence of nutrition on partitioning in broccoli plants. Commun Soil Sci Plant Anal 21:49–60CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  198. Shelp BJ (1993) Physiology and biochemistry of boron in plants. In: Gupta UC (ed) Boron and its role in crop protection. CRC, Boca Raton, pp 53–85Google Scholar
  199. Shivay YS, Prasad R, Pooniya V, Pal M, Bansal R (2017) Response of spring wheat to boron-coated urea and its effect on nitrogen use efficiency. J Plant Nutr 40:1920–1927CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  200. Shorrocks VM (1997) The occurrence and correction of boron deficiency. Plant Soil 193:121–148. CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  201. Sillanpaa M (1972) Trace elements in soils and agriculture. Food and Agric. Org. UN, RomeGoogle Scholar
  202. Sillanpaa M (1982) Micronutrients and nutrient status of soils: a global study. FAO Soils Bull. No. 48. Food & Agriculture Organization of the United Nations, Rome 444 ppGoogle Scholar
  203. Singh MV (2013) Efficiency of boron fortified NPK fertilizer in correcting boron deficiency in some cereal and oilseeds crops in India. XVII International Plant Nutrition Colloquium 19–22 August & Boron Satellite Meeting 17–18 August, Istanbul, TurkeyGoogle Scholar
  204. Singh BP, Singh A, Singh BN (1990) Response of rice (Oryza sativa L.) to zinc sulfate under mid-altitude conditions of Meghalaya. Ind J Agric Sci 60:70–71Google Scholar
  205. Slaton NA, Ross JR, DeLong RE, Clark SD, Schaeffer J, Boothe DL (2004) Evaluation of the residual benefits of boron fertilization on soybean and rice. In: Wayne E. Sabbe (Ed.) Arkansas soil fertility studies. AAES Res Series Arkansas Agricultural Experiment Station. Division of Agriculture, University of Arkansas, Fayetteville, USA, 525:100–104Google Scholar
  206. Small HG, Ohlrogge AJ (1973) Plant analysis as an aid in fertilizing soybeans and peanuts. In: Walsh LM, Beaton JD (eds) Soil testing and plant analysis. Soil Science Society of America, Madison, pp 315–327Google Scholar
  207. Smithson JB, Heathcote RG (1976) A new recommendation for the application of boronated superphosphate to cotton in northeastern Beune Plateau States. Samarau Agri Newsletter 18:59–63Google Scholar
  208. Sonmez O, Aydemir S, Kaya C (2009) Mitigation effects of mycorrhiza on boron toxicity in wheat (Triticum durum) plants. New Zeal J Crop Hort Sci 37:99–104CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  209. Sprague HB (1951) Hunger signs in crops, 3rd edn. McKay, New York, pp 25–57Google Scholar
  210. Sprague RW (1972) The ecological significance of boron. United States Borax and Chemical Corp, Los Angeles, p 58Google Scholar
  211. Stuerz S, Sow A, Muller B, Manneh B, Asch F (2014) Canopy microclimate and gas exchange in response to irrigation system in lowland rice in the Sahel. Field Crops Res 163:64–73CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  212. Sulaiman W, Kay BD (1972) Measurement of the diffusion coefficient of boron in soil using a single cell technique. Soil Sci Soc Am Proc 36:746–752CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  213. Swarup A (1991) Effect of gypsum, green manure, FYM and zinc fertilization on the zinc, iron and manganese nutrition of wetland rice on a sodic soil. J Indian Soc Soil Sci 39:530–536Google Scholar
  214. Takano J, Noguchi K, Yasumori M, Kobayashi M, Gajdos Z, Miwa K, Hayashi H, Yoneyama T, Fujiwara T (2002) Arabidopsis boron transporter for xylem loading. Nature 420:337–340. CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  215. Takano J, Miwa K, Yuan L, von Wiren N, Fujiwara T (2005) Endocytosis and degradation of BOR1, a boron transporter of Arabidopsis thaliana, regulated by boron availability. Proc Natl Acad Sci 102:12276–12281. CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  216. Tanaka H (1967) Boron absorption by crop plants as affected by other nutrients of the medium. Soil Sci Plant Nutr 13:41–44CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  217. Tanaka M, Fujiwara T (2008) Physiological roles and transport mechanisms of boron: perspectives from plants. Pflugers Arch - Eur J Physiol 456:671–677. CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  218. Tanaka N, Uraguchi S, Saito A, Kajikawa M, Kasai K, Sato Y, Nagamura Y, Fujiwara T (2013) Roles of pollen-specific boron efflux transporter, OsBOR4, in the rice fertilization process. Plant Cell Physiol 54:2011–2019PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  219. Tariq M, Mott CJB (2007) Effect of boron on the behavior of nutrients in soil-plant systems—a review. Asian J Plant Sci 6:195–202CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  220. Tisdale SL, Nelson WL, Beaton JD (1985) Soil fertility and fertilizers. Macmillan, New YorkGoogle Scholar
  221. Tsadilas CD, Yassoglou CS, Cosmas CS, Kallianou CH (1994) The availability of soil boron fractions to olive trees and barley and their relationships to soil properties. Plant Soil 162:211–217CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  222. Tuong TP, Bouman BAM, Mortimer M (2005) More rice, less water: integrated approaches for increasing water productivity in irrigated rice-based systems in Asia. Plant Prod Sci 8:231–241CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  223. Uraguchi S, Fujiwara T (2011) Significant contribution of boron stored in seeds to initial growth of rice seedlings. Plant Soil 340:435–442CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  224. Van de Vender HA, Currier HB (1977) The effect of boron deficiency on callose formation and 14C translocation in bean (Phaseolus vulgaris L.) and cotton (Gossypium hirsutum L.). Am J Bot 64:861–865CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  225. Wang K, Xu JM, Wei YZ, Yang Y, Bell RW (1997) The influence of boron fertilizer on distribution of extractable boron in soil profiles in rape–rice rotations in south east China. In: Bell RW, Rerkasem B (eds) Boron in soils and plants. Development in plant and soil sciences, vol 76. Kluwer Academic, Dordrecht, pp 57–61CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  226. Wang K, Yang Y, Bell RW, Xue JM, Ye ZQ, Wei YZ (1999) Low risks of toxicity from boron fertiliser in oilseed rape–rice rotations in southeast China. Nut Cycl Agroecosyst 54:189–197CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  227. Wang Q, Lu L, Wu X, Li Y, Lin J (2003) Boron influences pollen germination and pollen tube growth in Picea meyeri. Tree Physiol 23:345–351PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  228. Wang Y, Shi L, Cao X, Xu F (2007) Plant boron nutrition and boron fertilization in China. In: Xu F, Goldbach HE, Brown PH, Bell RW, Fujiwara T, Hunt CD, Goldberg S, Shi L (eds) Advances in plant and animal boron nutrition. Springer Netherlands, pp 93–101Google Scholar
  229. Warington K (1933) The influence of length of day on the response of plants to boron. Ann Bot 47:429CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  230. Wear JI, Patterson RM (1962) Effect of soil pH and texture on the availability of water-soluble boron in the soil. Soil Sci Soc Am Proc 26:344–346CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  231. Weir RG, Cresswell GC (1994) Plant nutrient disorders: 4. Pastures and field crops. Inkata, MelbourneGoogle Scholar
  232. Welch RM, Allaway WH, House WA, Kubota J (1991) Geographic distribution of trace element problems. In: Mortvedt JJ, Giordano PM, Lindsay WL (eds) Micronutrients in agriculture. Soil Science Society of America, Madison, pp 31–57Google Scholar
  233. Westmark PR, Gardiner SJ, Smith BD (1996) Selective monosaccharide transport through lipid bilayers using boronic acid carriers. J Am Chem Soc 118:11093–11100CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  234. Wimmer MA, Eichert T (2013) Mechanisms for boron deficiency-mediated changes in plant water relations. Plant Sci 203:25–32PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  235. Wimmer M, Mühling KH, Läuchli A, Brown P, Goldbach HE (2003) The interaction between salinity and boron toxicity affects the subcellular distribution of ions and proteins in wheat leaves. Plant Cell Environ 26:1267–1274CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  236. Wimmer MA, Lochnit G, Bassil E, Mühling KH, Goldbach HE (2009) Membrane-associated, boron-interacting proteins isolated by boronate affinity chromatography. Plant Cell Physiol 50:1292–1304PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  237. Witt C, Cassman KG, Olk DC, Biker U, Liboon SP, Samson MI, Ottow JC (2000) Crop rotation and residue management effects on carbon sequestration, nitrogen cycling and productivity of irrigated rice systems. Plant Soil 225:263–278CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  238. Xu JM, Wang K, Bell RW, Yang YA, Huang LB (2001) Soil boron fractions and their relationship to soil properties. Soil Sci Am J 65:133–138CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  239. Yang XD, Sun SQ, Li YQ (1999) Boron deficiency causes changes in the distribution of major polysaccharides of pollen tube wall. Acta Bot Sin 41:1169–1176Google Scholar
  240. Yang X, Yu YG, Yang Y, Bell RW, Ye ZQ (2000) Residual effectiveness of boron fertilizer for oilseed rape in intensively cropped rice-based rotations. Nutri Cycl Agroecosyst 57:171–181. CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  241. Yau SK (1997) Differential responses of barley, durum and bread wheat to high levels of soil boron. In: Ryan J (ed) Accomplishments and future challenges in dryland soil fertility research in the Mediterranean area. International Center for Agricultural Research in the Dry Areas, Aleppo, pp 209–216Google Scholar
  242. Ye Z (2004) Effect of low temperature on boron nutrition of oilseed rape and sunflower (Doctoral dissertation, Murdoch University)Google Scholar
  243. Ye Z (2005) Effect of low temperature on plant boron nutrition. PhD thesis, Murdoch UniversityGoogle Scholar
  244. Yermiyahu U, Keren R, Chen Y (1988) Boron sorption on composted organic matter. Soil Sci Soc Am J 52:1309–1313CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  245. Yermiyahu U, Keren R, Chen Y (1995) Boron sorption by soil in the presence of composted organic matter. Soil Sci Soc Am J 59:405–409CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  246. Yermiyahu U, Ben-Gal A, Keren R, Reid RJ (2008) Combined effect of salinity and excess boron on plant growth and yield. Plant Soil 304:73–87CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  247. Yoshinari A, Takano J (2017) Insights into the mechanisms underlying boron homeostasis in plants. Front Plant Sci 8:1951Google Scholar
  248. Yu X, Bell PF (2002) Boron and lime effects on yield and deficiency symptoms of rice grown in greenhouse on acid typic glossaqualf. J Plant Nutr 25:2591–2602. CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  249. Zehirov GT, Georgiev GI (2003) Effects of boron starvation on the apoplastic and total solute concentrations influencing nodule growth and acetylene reduction rate. Bulg J Plant Physiol 29: 367–373Google Scholar

Copyright information

© INRA and Springer-Verlag France SAS, part of Springer Nature 2018

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Department of AgronomyUniversity of AgricultureFaisalabadPakistan
  2. 2.Department of AgronomyBahauddin Zakariya UniversityMultanPakistan
  3. 3.Department of Crop Sciences, College of Agricultural and Marine SciencesSultan Qaboos UniversityAl-KhoudOman
  4. 4.Institute of Agricultural Sciences in the TropicsUniversity of HohenheimStuttgartGermany
  5. 5.The UWA Institute of Agriculture and School of Agriculture and EnvironmentThe University of Western AustraliaPerthAustralia
  6. 6.Pakistan Academy of SciencesIslamabadPakistan
  7. 7.School of Veterinary and Life SciencesMurdoch UniversityMurdochAustralia

Personalised recommendations