Low maize pollen collection and low pesticide risk to honey bees in heterogeneous agricultural landscapes
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Honey bees foraging on and around maize may be exposed to a number of pesticides, including neonicotinoids, but this exposure has not been well quantified in heterogeneous landscapes. Such landscapes may provide alternative foraging resources that add to or buffer pesticide risk. We assessed the influence of landscape context and maize pollen collection on pesticide levels during maize flowering. We quantified pesticides in (1) bee bread from 49 hives across New York and (2) pollen trapped weekly in one yard. Landscape composition and percent maize pollen were not related to pesticide levels. Furthermore, pesticide risk was low (< 1% contact LD50) in all but one of the pollen samples, and maize pollen was absent in the majority of samples. Our results suggest that hives near maize fields during maize flowering are not necessarily exposed to high levels of neonicotinoids and other pesticides in pollen, especially if uncontaminated pollen sources exist nearby.
Keywordsmaize Zea mays corn pesticides neonicotinoids pollinator Apis mellifera
We thank Andy Card, Ashley Fersch, and Nelson Milano with assistance in the field and lab.
SM, SB, and KB conceived this research and designed the field studies; SB collected the field data; NB, KB, and MR performed lab analyses; CU analyzed the data; CU and SM interpreted the data; CU wrote the first manuscript draft; SM and CU revised the manuscript. All authors read, edited, and approved the final manuscript.
This study was funded by the USDA (Federal Capacity Fund #1010568) and the NYS Environmental Protection Fund. Any opinions, findings, and conclusions or recommendations expressed in this material are those of the authors and do not necessarily reflect the views of the funding agencies.
Compliance with ethical standards
Conflict of interest
The authors declare that they have no conflict of interest.
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