Changes in volatile organic compounds and differential expression of aroma-related genes during flowering of Rosa rugosa ‘Shanxian’
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Rosa rugosa ‘Shanxian’, a local variety of rose in Shandong Province, was studied for its aroma characteristics, including changes in aroma components and differential expression of aroma-related genes during flowering. The volatiles emitted from flowers were collected by headspace solid-phase microextraction and analyzed by gas chromatography–mass spectrometry at the budding stage, the early, half and full opening stages, and the withering stage. Sixty-six compounds were identified, and the full opening stage contained the highest level of every single aroma component compared with the other four stages. The major constituents of R. rugosa ‘Shanxian’ were alcohols, esters, ketones, aldehydes, phenols, and terpenes, with alcohols being the most abundant. The aroma of R. rugosa ‘Shanxian’ was mainly characterized by rich fruit aromas, floral aromas, and soft plant aromas. RrAAT, RrDXR, and RrDXS genes played a key role in monoterpene biosynthesis in R. rugosa ‘Shanxian’. The temporal and spatial expression of RrAAT, RrDXR, and RrDXS were measured at different flower developmental stages. Among the three genes, the overall expression level of RrAAT was significantly higher than that of RrDXR and RrDXS and was associated with the accumulation of acetate esters in R. rugosa, which could be used as an important candidate gene for rose metabolism. Taken together, our results demonstrated that R. rugosa ‘Shanxian’ has better aromatic characteristics than R. rugosa ‘Fenghua’. With a particularly prominent aroma that is strong and sweet, ‘Shanxian’ should be further investigated as a valuable breeding material that could be used to enhance genetic diversity and develop new rose varieties.
KeywordsRosa rugosa ‘Shanxian’ Florescence process Volatile component Aroma Gene expression
We are grateful to Chao Wang for GC–MS analyzing, and Xiaotong Bao for sampling assistance (Shandong Agricultural University). We also thank Dr. Fangfang Ma (Shandong Agricultural University) for critically reading of the manuscript. This research was supported by the Natural Science Foundation of Shandong Province (ZR2011CM048) and the Agricultural Breeding Project of Shandong Province (Shandong Agricultural 213).
Wenli Wang is fully responsible for the research and revision of the manuscript. Wenli Wang and Yaru sun designed experiments and analyzed experimental results. Yarusun carried out experiments and wrote the manuscript. Lanyong Zhao assisted in the analysis of aroma component data and evaluation and instructed the revision of the corresponding contents of the manuscript. Chengshu Zheng gave guidance and participated in the discussion on functional gene expression analysis. Fangfang Ma contributed much in the data analysis and revised version of our manuscript.
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Conflict of interest
The manuscript have not been published in other refereed publications. Submission of a manuscript to the journal implies no concurrent submission elsewhere. The authors have no conflicting interests, and all authors have approved the manuscript and agree with its submission to the journal Horticulture, Environment, and Biotechnology (HEB). The publication of this manuscript has been approved by all co-authors.
Human and animal rights
This article does not contain any studies with human participants or animals performed by any of the authors.
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