Advertisement

Determination of mutagenic sensitivity to gamma rays in ginseng (Panax ginseng) dehiscent seeds, roots, and somatic embryos

  • Jung-Woo Lee
  • Ick-Hyun Jo
  • Jang-Uk Kim
  • Chi-Eun Hong
  • Kyong-Hwan Bang
  • Young-Doo ParkEmail author
Research Report
  • 10 Downloads

Abstract

Ginseng (Panax ginseng) has a low genetic diversity and a narrow pool of genetic resources. Mutagenesis is one of the most powerful methods for inducing genetic variation in this species, but little research has been performed in ginseng. In this study, various tissues, including dehiscent seeds, 1-year-old roots, and somatic embryos were irradiated at different doses of gamma rays (20–400 Gy and zero dose as a control) to determine the most optimal concentration and tissues for the successful use of mutagenesis in ginseng breeding. The results revealed that high gamma doses (> 100 Gy) were detrimental to all irradiated tissues. A gradual and significant reduction in germination, emergence, and seedling growth were found as gamma irradiation dose increased. The reduction in survival rates and seedling growth by irradiation at serial doses showed that the LD50 of ginseng was 20–80 Gy, although the irradiation doses were tissue dependent. Based on our results, the optimal doses of gamma rays for inducing mutation in ginseng are < 20, 40, and 60–80 Gy for 1-year-old roots, dehiscent seeds, and somatic embryos, respectively. Given the fact that ginseng somatic embryos are less sensitive to gamma rays than other tissues, the combination of in vitro culture and mutagenesis could be more effective than the conventional method for mutation breeding in ginseng. These results provide a good basis for radiation sensitivity of ginseng and are useful as a guideline for ginseng mutation breeding.

Keywords

Gamma rays Mutagenesis Panax ginseng 

Notes

Acknowledgements

This work was carried out with the support of the Cooperative Research Program for Agriculture Science and Technology Development (Project No. PJ01267901) of the Rural Development Administration, Republic of Korea.

Author contributions

Jung-Woo Lee and Ick-Hyun Jo contributed equally to this work.

Compliance with ethical standards

Conflict of interest

All authors confirm that they have no conflict of interest.

References

  1. Ahn SI, Kim SK, Yang BW, Lee ES, Kang CS, Hahm YT (2016) Analysis of ginsenosides and non-saponin components of red ginseng from landraces and new varieties. Korean J Hortic Sci Technol 34:790–798Google Scholar
  2. Bado S, Forster BP, Nielen S, Ali AM, Lagoda PJ, Till BJ, Laimer M (2015) Plant mutation breeding: current progress and future assessment. In: Janick J (ed) Plant breeding reviews. Wiley, Hoboken, pp 23–88.  https://doi.org/10.1002/9781119107743.ch02 Google Scholar
  3. Bermudez-Caraballoso I, Garcia LR, Veitia N, Torres D, Pardon Y, Romero C, Orellana P (2010) Mutant plantains (Musa spp.) with height reduction obtained by in vitro mutagenesis. Euphytica 176:105–112.  https://doi.org/10.1007/s10681-010-0233-9 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  4. Borzouei A, Kafi M, Khazaei H, Naseriyan B, Majdabadi A (2010) Effects of gamma radiation on germination and physiological aspects of wheat (Triticum aestivum L.) seedlings. Pak J Bot 42:2281–2290Google Scholar
  5. Brunner H (1995) Radiation induced mutations for plant selection. Appl Radiat Isot 46:589–594CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  6. Choi YE, Yang DC, Park JC, Soh WY, Choi KT (1998) Regenerative ability of somatic single and multiple embryos from cotyledons of Korean ginseng on hormone free medium. Plant Cell Rep 17:544–551.  https://doi.org/10.1007/s002990050439 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  7. Constantin MJ (1984) Potential of in vitro mutation breeding for improvement of vegetatively propagated crop plants. In: Induced mutation for crop improvement in Latin America, Vienna, FAO/IAEA, pp 59–78Google Scholar
  8. Evans DA, Sharp WR (1983) Single gene mutations in tomato plants regenerated from tissue culture. Science 221:949–951.  https://doi.org/10.1126/science.221.4614.949 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  9. Gao K, Chen J, Wang Y, Qi Y, Chen L, Li S, Sun Y (2018) Effects of 60Co-γ and electron beam irradiation on storage quality of Panax ginseng. Food Bioprocess Technol 11:1627–1638.  https://doi.org/10.1007/s11947-018-2108-3 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  10. Jain SM (2010) Mutagenesis in crop improvement under the climate change. Rom Biotechnol Lett 15:88–106Google Scholar
  11. Jan S, Parween T, Siddiqi TO, Mahmooduzzafar X (2011) Gamma radiation effects on growth and yield attributes of Psoralea corylifolia L. with reference to enhanced production of psoralen. Plant Growth Regul 64:163–171.  https://doi.org/10.1007/s10725-010-9552-z CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  12. Jan S, Parween T, Siddiqi TO, Mahmooduzzafar X (2012) Effect of gamma radiation on morphological, biochemical and physiological aspects of plants and plant products. Environ Rev 20:17–39.  https://doi.org/10.1139/a11-021 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  13. Jankowicz-Cieslak J, Till BJ (2015) Forward and reverse genetics in crop breeding. In: Al-Khayri JM, Jain SM, Johnson DV (eds) Advances in plant breeding strategies: breeding, biotechnology and molecular tools. Springer, Basel, pp 215–240CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  14. Jankowicz-Cieslak J, Tai TH, Kumlehn J, Till BJ (2017) Biotechnologies for plant mutation breeding. Springer, Vienna, IAEACrossRefGoogle Scholar
  15. Jo YD, Kim SH, Hwang JE, Kim YS, Kang HS, Kim SW, Kwon SJ, Ryu JH, Kim JB, Kang SY (2016) Construction of mutation population by gamma-ray and carbon beam irradiation in chilli pepper (Capsicum annuum L.). Hortic Environ Biotechnol 57:606–614.  https://doi.org/10.1007/s13580-016-1132-3 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  16. Jung YJ, Lee GJ, Bae S, Kang KK (2018) Reduced ethylene production in tomato fruits upon CRSPR/Cas9-mediated LeMADS-RIN mutagenesis. Hortic Sci Technol 36:396–405Google Scholar
  17. Kim DS, Kim SY, Jeong IY, Kim JB, Lee GJ, Kang SY, Kim W (2009) Improvement of ginsenoside production by Panax ginseng adventitious roots induced by γ-irradiation. Biol Plant 53:408–414.  https://doi.org/10.1007/s10535-009-0079-y CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  18. Kim DS, Song M, Kim SH, Jang DS, Kim JB, Ha BK, Kim SH, Lee KJ, Kang SY, Jeong IY (2013a) The improvement of ginsenoside accumulation on Panax ginseng as a result of γ-irradiation. J Ginseng Res 37:332–340.  https://doi.org/10.5142/jgr.2013.37.332 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  19. Kim YC, Kim DH, Bang KH, Kim JU, Hyun DY, Lee SW, Kang SW, Cha SW, Kim KH, Choi JK, Han SH, An YN, Jeing HN (2013b) A high yielding and salt resistance ginseng variety ‘Cheonryang’. Korean J Breed Sci 45:434–439CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  20. Kim YC, Kim JU, Lee JW, Hong CE, Bang KH, Kim DH, Hyun DY, Choi JK, Seong BJ, An YN, Jeong HN, Jo IH (2017) ‘Kowon’, a new Korean ginseng cultivars with high yield and alternaria blight resistance. Hortic Sci Technol 35:499–509.  https://doi.org/10.12972/kjhst.20170053 Google Scholar
  21. Kumagai J, Katoh H, Kumada T, Tanaka A, Tano S (2000) Strong resistance of Arabidopsis thaliana and Raphanus sativus seeds for ionizing radiation as studied by ESR, ENDOR, ESE spectroscopy and germination measurement: effect of long-lived and super-long-lived radicals. Radiat Phys Chem 57:75–83.  https://doi.org/10.1016/S0969-806X(99)00306-0 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  22. Kwon SH, Won JL (1978) Recommendable dose of X- and gamma-ray for mutation breeding. Korean J Breed Sci 10:127–132Google Scholar
  23. Kwon JH, Belanger JMR, Sigouin M, Lanthier J, Willemot C, Par JRJ (1990) Chemical constituents of Panax ginseng exposed to gamma irradiation. J Agric Food Chem 38:830–834.  https://doi.org/10.1021/jf00093a051 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  24. Kwon WS, Kang JY, Lee JH, Lee MG, Choi KT (1998) Red ginseng quality and characteristics of KG101 a promising line of Panax ginseng. J Ginseng Res 22:244–251Google Scholar
  25. Kwon WS, Lee MG, Choi KT (2000) Breeding process and characteristics of Yunpoong, a new variety of Panax ginseng C.A. Meyer. J Ginseng Res 24:1–7Google Scholar
  26. Kwon WS, Lee JH, Park CS, Yang DC (2003) Breeding process and characteristics of Gopoong, a new variety of Panax ginseng C.A. Meyer. J Ginseng Res 27:86–91CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  27. Lee JH, Lee JS, Kwon WS, Kang JY, Lee DY, In JG (2015) Characteristics of Korean ginseng varieties of Gumpoong, Sunun, Sunpoong, Sunone, Cheongsun, and Sunhyang. J Ginseng Res 39:94–104.  https://doi.org/10.1016/j.jgr.2014.06.007 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  28. Lee JW, Jo IH, Kim JK, Hong CE, Kim YC, Kim DH, Park YD (2018) Improvement of seed dehiscence and germination in ginseng by stratification, gibberellin, and/or kinetin treatments. Hortic Environ Biotechnol 59:293–301.  https://doi.org/10.1007/s13580-018-0039-6 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  29. Maluszynski M, Ahloowalia BS, Sigurbjörnsson B (1995) Application of in vivo and in vitro mutation techniques for crop improvement. Euphytica 85:303–315.  https://doi.org/10.1007/BF00023960 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  30. Mba C (2013) Induced mutations unleash the potentials of plant genetic resources for food and agriculture. Agronomy 3:200–231.  https://doi.org/10.3390/agronomy3010200 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  31. Mba C, Afza R, Bado S, Jain SM (2010) Induced mutagenesis in plants using physical and chemical agents. In: Davey MR, Anthony P (eds) Plant cell culture: essential methods. Wiley, Chichester, pp 111–130CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  32. Moussa HR (2011) Low dose of gamma irradiation enhanced drought tolerance in soybean. Bulg J Agric Sci 17:63–72.  https://doi.org/10.1556/AAgr.59.2011.1.1 Google Scholar
  33. Murashige T, Skoog F (1962) A revised medium for rapid growth and bioassays with tobacco tissue. Physiol Plant 15:473–497CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  34. Norfadzrin F, Ahmed OH, Shaharudin S, Rahman DA (2007) A preliminary study on gamma radiosensitivity of tomato (Lycopersicon esculentum) and okra (Abelmoschus esculentus). Int J Agric Res 2:620–625.  https://doi.org/10.3923/ijar.2007.620.625 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  35. Omar SR, Ahmed OH, Saamin S, Majid NMA (2008) Gamma radiosensitivity study on chili (Capsicum annuum). Am J Appl Sci 5:67–70CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  36. Patade VY, Suprasanna P (2008) Radiation induced in vitro mutagenesis for sugarcane improvement. Sugar Tech 10:14–19.  https://doi.org/10.1007/s12355-008-0002-4 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  37. Patade VY, Suprasanna P, Bapat VA (2008) Gamma irradiation of embryogenic callus cultures and in vitro selection for salt tolerance in sugarcane (Saccharum offcinarum L.). Agric Sci China 7:101–105.  https://doi.org/10.1016/S1671-2927(08)60158-3 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  38. Preussa SB, Britta AB (2003) A DNA-damage-induced cell cycle checkpoint in Arabidopsis. Genetics 164:323–334Google Scholar
  39. Pu J, Wang Q, Shen YF, Zhuang LF, Li CX, Tan MF, Bie TD, Chu CG, Qi ZJ (2015) Physical mapping of chromosome 4J of Thinopyrum bessarabicum using gamma radiation-induced aberrations. Theor Appl Genet 128:1319–1328.  https://doi.org/10.1007/s00122-015-2508-y CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  40. Ryu JH, Kwon SJ, Ahn JW, Kim SH, Lee SY, Kim JB, Jo YD, Ha BK, Kang SY (2018) Development of a stem-color mutant kenaf (Hibiscus cannabinus L.) cultivar, ‘Jeokbong’, and analysis of its functional compounds. Hortic Sci Technol 36:77–81Google Scholar
  41. Schenk RU, Hildebrandt AC (1972) Medium and techniques for induction and growth of monocotyledonous and dicotyledonous plant cell cultures. Can J Bot 50:199–204CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  42. Shin BK, Kwon SW, Park JH (2015) Chemical diversity of ginseng saponins from Panax ginseng. J Ginseng Res 39:287–298.  https://doi.org/10.1016/j.jgr.2014.12.005 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  43. Shu QY, Forster BP, Nakagawa H (2012) Principles and applications of plant mutation breeding. In: Shu QY, Forster BP, Nakagawa H (eds) Plant mutation breeding and biotechnology. CABI Publishing, Wallingford, pp 301–324CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  44. Singh B, Datta PS (2010) Gamma irradiation to improve plant vigour, grain development, and yield attributes of wheat. Radiat Phys Chem 79:139–143.  https://doi.org/10.1016/j.radphyschem.2009.05.025 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  45. Song JY, Kim DS, Lee MC, Lee KJ, Kim JB, Kim SH, Ha BK, Yun SJ, Kang SY (2012) Physiological characterization of gamma-ray induced salt tolerant rice mutants. Aust J Crop Sci 6:421–429Google Scholar
  46. Surakshitha NC, Soorianathasundaram K, Meenakshi Gganesan N (2017) Determination of mutagenic sensitivity of hardwood cuttings of grapes ‘Red Globe’ and ‘Muscat’ (Vitis vinifera L.) to gamma rays. Sci Hortic 226:152–156CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  47. Ulukapi K, Nasircilar AG (2015) Developments of gamma ray application on mutation breeding studies in recent years. In: International conference on advances in agricultural, biological environmental sciences (AABES-2015). London, United Kingdom, pp 31–34.  https://doi.org/10.15242/iicbe.c0715044
  48. Witjaksono LR (2004) Effect of gamma irradiation on embryogenic avocado cultures and somatic embryo development. Plant Cell Tissue Organ Cult 77:139–147CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  49. Zani D, Dondi D, Araújo S, Mondonid A, Balestrazzia A (2017) Impact of γ-rays on seed germination/short-term storage in four native alpine species: correlation with free radical and antioxidant profiles. Radiat Phys Chem 131:86–94.  https://doi.org/10.1016/j.radphyschem.2016.11.001 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  50. Zhang JY, Bae TW, Boo KH, Sun HJ, Song IJ, Pham CH, Ganesan M, Yang DH, Kang HK, Ko SM, Riu KZ, Lim PO, Lee HY (2011) Ginsenoside production and morphological characterization of wild ginseng (Panax ginseng Meyer) mutant lines induced by γ-irradiation (60Co) of adventitious roots. J Ginseng Res 35:283–293.  https://doi.org/10.5142/jgr.2011.35.3.283 CrossRefGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© Korean Society for Horticultural Science 2019

Authors and Affiliations

  • Jung-Woo Lee
    • 1
    • 2
  • Ick-Hyun Jo
    • 1
  • Jang-Uk Kim
    • 1
  • Chi-Eun Hong
    • 1
  • Kyong-Hwan Bang
    • 1
  • Young-Doo Park
    • 2
    Email author
  1. 1.Department of Herbal Crop Research, National Institute of Horticultural and Herbal Science (NIHHS)Rural Development Administration (RDA)EumseongRepublic of Korea
  2. 2.Department of Horticultural BiotechnologyKyung Hee UniversityYonginRepublic of Korea

Personalised recommendations