Tools for Chrysanthemum genetic research and breeding: Is genotyping-by-sequencing (GBS) the best approach?

  • Toan Khac Nguyen
  • Jin-Hee LimEmail author
Review Article


Chrysanthemum, which belongs to the Asteraceae family, is a floriculture crop with ornamental, industrial, and medicinal value. Chrysanthemum breeding programs have generated genetic linkage maps and identified molecular markers for important traits. Chrysanthemum species have a complex genetic background, and several studies on Chrysanthemum species have been published in the last 3 decades. The Chrysanthemum genome was published by Amway Botanical R&D Center, China (online since 2017/12/07); however, the molecular breeding of Asteraceae is not well studied yet. Next-generation sequencing (NGS) technologies, genotyping-by-sequencing (GBS), and association mapping have facilitated the identification of novel genetic markers. Chrysanthemum species have a very large genome and include diploid and polyploid species (such as allohexaploids) with complex hereditary features such as self-incompatibility systems and inbreeding depression. The development of NGS technologies allowed the advance of high-throughput DNA sequencing for detecting and single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNP) in various plant species. Through NGS, a large number of SNPs detected via whole-genome sequencing can be used as markers in breeding and genetic studies. While SNP markers allow rapid analyses, contribute to the low cost of genome-wide scans, and are sequenced by numerous efficient platforms in diverse genetic backgrounds, GBS can be advantageous for the study of gene function, genetic variation, and heredity, specifically in modern plant breeding. In addition, GBS can reduce genome complexity, allowing SNP discovery and genotyping of sequences without a reference genome. This review focuses on the tools used for genomic research and breeding in Chrysanthemum, and discusses the processes in SNP development and study of the evolutionary processes in Chrysanthemum species.


Chrysanthemum Chrysanthemum genome GBS Genetic diversity NGS SNP 



We thank the members of our lab, especially S. T. T. Ha, for her assistance during manuscript revision.

Author contributions

T.K. Nguyen designed the study and wrote the manuscript. J.H. Lim contributed to the writing of the manuscript and supervised the project.


This study was funded by the “Development of global-market strategic-type new cultivars in Chrysanthemum (PJ0117502018)” of the Rural Development Administration of Korea (RDA), South Korea.

Compliance with ethical standards

Conflict of interest

The authors declare that they have no conflict of interest.


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Copyright information

© Korean Society for Horticultural Science 2019

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Department of Plant BiotechnologySejong UniversitySeoulKorea

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