Interspecies hybrids of Panax ginseng Meyer new line 0837 and Panax quinquefolius generated superior F1 hybrids with greater biomass and ginsenoside contents

  • Kwang Hoon Seo
  • Padmanaban Mohanan
  • Dong-Uk Yang
  • Yu-Jin Kim
  • Woo-Saeng Kwon
  • Deok Chun YangEmail author
Research Report


Panax ginseng and Panax quinquefolius are important herbs with similar benefits and medicinal properties. Both possess ginsenosides, the pharmacologically active components, abundantly in their roots. In an attempt to establish ginseng cultivars with improved agronomical characters and higher ginsenoside content, reciprocal interspecific hybrids were generated by artificial pollination of emasculated flowers. Three elite cultivars of P. ginseng, types Jakyung, Chungkyung, and Hwangsook, and two new lines, 0837 and 0702, were used to assess interspecific hybrid potential. Among F1 reciprocal hybrids generated using line 0837 as either the maternal or paternal parent showed excellent agronomical traits and hybrid vigor. They showed strong root phenotypes with many lateral and fine roots resulting in 10 to 20% higher ginsenoside content compared to the parental lines. Among the major ginsenosides, pharmacologically active Re, Rb1, Rb2, and F1 were enriched. They accounted for 70% of the protopanaxadiol ginsenosides in 0837/Pq and Pq/0837 crosses, displaying strong maternal dominance. Thus, based on our results, we conclude that P. ginseng line 0837 is superior compared to already existing lines for performing interspecific hybridization with promising outcomes in root quality and ginsenoside content.


American ginseng Artificial pollination Ginsenosides Interspecific hybrids Korean ginseng Medicinal plants Perennial breeding 



This research was supported by the Korea Institute of Planning and Evaluation for Technology in Food, Agriculture, Forestry and Fisheries (iPET, 112142-05-1-CG000), Republic of Korea (WS Kwon and DC Yang).

Author contributions

KW Seo and P Mohanan performed the experiments and analyze the data together with DU Yang. DC Yang, WS Kwon, YJ Kim designed the study and cultivar identification and overviewed the experiments. KW Seo and P Mohanan wrote the manuscript together with DC Yang.

Compliance with ethical standards

Conflict of interest

The authors declare that they have no conflict of interest.

Supplementary material

13580_2019_154_MOESM1_ESM.pptx (56 kb)
Figure S1: A schematic representation of the development of 0702 and 0837 new line selection and interspecific cross time points. (PPTX 56 kb)
13580_2019_154_MOESM2_ESM.docx (22 kb)
Table S1: Phenotypic observation of 0837, Pq, 0837/Pq, and Pq/0837 populations from the first to fifth-year of development (DOCX 23 kb)


  1. Birchler JA (2016) Plant science: hybrid vigour characterized. Nature 537:620–621CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  2. Chandel P, Tiwari JK, Ali N, Devi S, Sharma S, Sharma S, Kumar S, Luthra SK, Singh BP (2015) Interspecific potato somatic hybrids between Solanum tuberosum and S. cardiophyllum, potential sources of late blight resistance breeding. Plant Cell Tissue Organ Cult PCTOC 123:579–589CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  3. Choi KT (2008) Botanical characteristics, pharmacological effects and medicinal components of Korean Panax ginseng C A Meyer. Acta Pharmacol Sin 29:1109–1118CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  4. Choi KT, Lee MG, Kwon WS, Lee JH (1994) Strategy for high-quality ginseng breeding. Korean J Breed Sci. 26:89–91Google Scholar
  5. Chung YY, Chung CM, Choi KT, Chung CS (1992) The comparison of growth characteristics of Panax ginseng C. A. Meyer and Panax quinquefolium L. Korea J Breed 24:81–86Google Scholar
  6. Chung YY, Chung CM, Jo JS (2003) Agronomic characteristics of chemical component of hybrid between Panax ginseng C.A Meyer and Panax quinquefolius L. J Ginseng Res 27:183–187CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  7. Comai L (2005) The advantages and disadvantages of being polyploid. Nat Rev Genet 6:836–846CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  8. Compilation Committee of the Korea Ginseng History (2017) The Magnificence of Korean Ginseng. Korean Ginseng Society, pp 42–49.
  9. de Freitas Lima M, Eloy NB, de Siqueira JAB, Inzé D, Hemerly AS, Ferreira PCG (2017) Molecular mechanisms of biomass increase in plants. Biotechnol Res Innov 1:14–25CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  10. Jakaria Md, Kim JS, Govindarajan K, Park SY, Ganesan P, Choi DK (2018) Emerging signals modulating potential of ginseng and its active compounds focusing on neurodegenerative diseases. J Ginseng Res 43:163–171. CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  11. Jansky S (2010) Parental effects on the performance of cultivated x wild species hybrids in potato. Euphytica 178:273–281CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  12. Kim YC, Kim YB, Bang KH, Kim JU, Kim DH, Hyun DY, Kim KH (2013) Growth characteristics of F1, F2 by cross between species and varieties of Ginseng. In: Korea medicinal crops conference 2013 symposium and fall conference of the Korean Society of Medicinal Crop Science, Domestic Herbal Medicines and Globalization Strategy, pp 175–176Google Scholar
  13. Kim YJ, Jeon JN, Jang MG, Oh JY, Kwon Kim WS, Jung SK, Yang DC (2014) Ginsenoside profiles and related gene expression during foliation in Panax ginseng Meyer. J Ginseng Res 38:66–72CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  14. Kim YJ, Zhang D, Yang DC (2015) Biosynthesis and biotechnological production of ginsenosides. Biotechnol Adv 33:717–735CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  15. Kim YJ, Silva J, Zhang D, Shi J, Joo SC, Jang MG, Kwon WS, Yang DC (2016) Development of interspecies hybrids to increase ginseng biomass and ginsenoside yield. Plant Cell Rep 35:779–790CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  16. Kim NH, Jayakodi M, Lee SC, Choi BS, Jang W, Lee J, Kim HH, Waminal NE, Lakshmanan M, van Nguyen B, Lee YS, Park HS, Koo HJ, Park JY, Perumal S, Joh HJ, Lee H, Kim J, Kim IS, Kim K, Koduru L, Kang KB, Sung SH, Yu Y, Park DS, Choi D, Seo E, Kim S, Kim YC, Hyun DY, Park YI, Kim C, Lee TH, Kim HU, Soh MS, Lee Y, In JG, Kim HS, Kim YM, Yang DC, Wing RA, Lee DY, Paterson AH, Yang TJ (2018a) Genome and evolution of the shade-requiring medicinal herb Panax ginseng. Plant Biotechnol J 16:1904–1917. CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  17. Kim YJ, Joo SC, Shi J, Hu C, Quan S, Hu J, Sukweenadhi J, Mohanan P, Yang DC, Zhang D (2018b) Metabolic dynamics and physiological adaptation of Panax ginseng during development. Plant Cell Rep 37:393–410CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  18. Lee SW, Kim GS, Yeon BY, Hyun DY, Kim YB, Kang SW, Kim YC (2009) Comparison of growth characteristics and Ginsenoside contents by drainage classes and varieties in 3-year-old Ginseng (Panax ginseng C. A. Meyer). Korean J Med Crop Sci 17:346–351Google Scholar
  19. Lee JH, Lee JS, Kwon WS, Kang JY, Lee DY, In JG, Kim YS, Seo J, Baeg IH, Chang IM, Grainger K (2015) Characteristics of Korean ginseng varieties of Gumpoong, Sunun, Sunpoong, Sunone, Cheongsun, and Sunhyang. J Ginseng Res 39:94–104CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  20. Lee OR, Nguyen NQ, Lee KH, Kim YC, Seo J (2017) Cytohistological study of the leaf structures of Panax ginseng Meyer and Panax quinquefolius L. J Ginseng Res 41:463–468CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  21. Leung KW, Wong AS (2010) Pharmacology of ginsenosides: a literature review. Clin Med 5:20. Google Scholar
  22. Li TSC (1995) Asian and American ginseng—a review. Hort Technol 5:27–34Google Scholar
  23. Li KK, Gong XJ (2015) A review on the medicinal potential of Panax ginseng saponins in diabetes mellitus. RSC Adv 5:47353–47366CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  24. Maloney VJ, Park JY, Unda F, Mnasfield SD (2015) Sucrose phosphate synthase and sucrose phosphate phosphatase interact in planta and promote plant growth and biomass accumulation. J Exp Bot 66:4383–4394CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  25. Mohanan P, Subramaniyam S, Mathiyalagan R, Yang DC (2018) Molecular signaling of ginsenosides Rb1, Rg1, and Rg3 and their mode of actions. J Ginseng Res 42:123–132CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  26. Nault A, White DJ (1999) Update COSEWIC status report on the American ginseng Panax quinquefolius in Canada. Committee on the Status of Endangered Wildlife in Canada, Ottawa, p 1Google Scholar
  27. Qian W, Liu R, Meng J (2003) Genetic effects on biomass yield in interspecific hybrids between Brassica napus and B. rapa. Euphytica 134:9–15CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  28. Smith I, Williamson EM, Putnam S, Farrimond J, Whalley BJ (2014) Effects and mechanisms of ginseng and ginsenosides on cognition. Nutr Rev 72:319–333CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  29. Sohn SI, Oh YJ, Lee KR, Ko HC, Cho HS, Lee YH, Chang A (2016) Characteristics Analysis of F1 Hybrids between Genetically Modified Brassica napus and B. rapa. PLoS One 11:e0162103CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  30. Turner SD, Maurizio PL, Valdar W, Yandell BS, Simon PW (2018) Dissecting the genetic architecture of shoot growth in carrot (Daucus carota L.) using a diallel mating design. G3 (Bethesda) 8:411–426. CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  31. UPOV—International Union For The Protection Of New Varieties Of Plants (2017) Technical working party for agricultural crops at its forty-sixth session. Hanover, GermanyGoogle Scholar
  32. Walter HL, Vincent EZ (1982) Population dynamics of the American Ginseng Panax quinquefolium (Araliaceae). Am J Bot 69:1483–1490CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  33. Wong AS, Che CM, Leung KW (2015) Recent advances in ginseng as cancer therapeutics: a functional and mechanistic overview. Nat Prod Rep 32:256–272CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  34. Yang DU, Kim MK, Mohanan P, Mathiyalagan R, Seo KH, Kwon WS, Yang DC (2017a) Development of a single-nucleotide-polymorphism marker for specific authentication of Korean ginseng (Panax ginseng Meyer) new cultivar “G-1”. J Ginseng Res 41:31–35CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  35. Yang Y, Ren C, Zhang Y, Wu X (2017b) Ginseng: an nonnegligible natural remedy for healthy aging. Aging Dis 8:708–720CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  36. Yun TK (2001) Brief introduction of Panax ginseng C.A. Meyer. J Korean Med Sci. Google Scholar

Copyright information

© Korean Society for Horticultural Science 2019

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Department of Oriental Medicinal Biotechnology, College of Life ScienceKyung Hee UniversityYongin siRepublic of Korea
  2. 2.Graduate School of Biotechnology, College of Life SciencesKyung Hee UniversityYongin siRepublic of Korea

Personalised recommendations