Horticulture, Environment, and Biotechnology

, Volume 59, Issue 6, pp 827–833 | Cite as

Application of plasma lighting for growth and flowering of tomato plants

  • Kyoung Sub Park
  • Sung Kyeom KimEmail author
  • Sang Gyu Lee
  • Hee Ju Lee
  • Joon Kook Kwon
Research Report Cultivation Physiology


Plasma lighting systems have been engineered to simulate sunlight. The objective of this study was to determine the effects of plasma lighting on tomato plant growth, photosynthetic characteristics, flowering rate, and physiological disorders. Tomato plants were grown in growth chambers at air temperatures of 25/23 °C (light/dark period), in a 16 h day−1 light period provided by four different light sources: 1 kW and 700 W sulfur plasma lights (1 SPL and 0.7 SPL), 1 kW indium bromide plasma light, and 700 W high pressure sodium lamp (0.7 HPS) as a control. The total dry weight and leaf area at 0.7 SPL were approximately 1.2 and 1.3 times greater, respectively, than that of 0.7 HPS at the 62 days after sowing (DAS). The maximum light assimilation rate was observed at 1 SPL at the 73 DAS. In addition, the light compensation and saturation points of the plants treated with plasma lighting were 98.5% higher compared with HPS. Those differences appeared to be related to more efficient light interception, provided by the SPL spectrum. The percentage of flowering at 0.7 SPL was 30.5%, which was higher than that at 0.7 HPS; however, there were some instances of severe blossom end rot. Results indicate that plasma lighting promotes tomato growth, flowering, and photosynthesis. Therefore, a plasma lighting system may be a valuable supplemental light source in a greenhouse or plant factory.


CO2 compensation point Light curve Light spectrum Photosynthesis rate Supplementary lighting 



This study was supported by the 2014 Postdoctoral Fellowship Program and ICT project (PJ012059) of the National Institute of Horticultural & Herbal Science, Rural Development Administration, Republic of Korea.


  1. Amoozgar A, Mohammadi A, Sabzalian MR (2017) Impact of light-emitting diode irradiation on photosynthesis, phytochemical composition and mineral element content of lettuce cv. Grizzly. Photosynthetica 55:85–95CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  2. Bohning RH, Burnside CA (1956) The effect of light intensity on rate of apparent photosynthesis in leaves of sun and shade plants. Am J Bot 43:557–561CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  3. Cocetta G, Casciani D, Bulgari R, Musante F, Kolton A, Rossi M, Ferrante A (2017) Light use efficiency for vegetables production in protected and indoor environments. Eur Phys J Plus 132:43CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  4. de Visser PHB, Buck-Sorlin GH, van der Heijen GWAM (2014) Optimizing illumination in the greenhouse using a 3D model of tomato and a ray tracer. Front Plant Sci 5:1CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  5. Guo X, Hao X, Zheng JM, Little C, Khosla S (2016a) Effects of plasma vs. high pressure sodium lamps on plant growth, fruit yield and quality in greenhouse cucumber production. Acta Hortic 1134:79–86CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  6. Guo X, Hao X, Zheng JM, Little C, Khosla S (2016b) Response of greenhouse mini-cucumber to different vertical spectra of LED lighting under overhead high-pressure sodium and plasma lighting. Acta Hortic 1134:87–94CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  7. Hao X, Little C, Zheng JM, Cao R (2016) Far-red LEDs improve fruit production in greenhouse tomato grown under high-pressure sodium lighting. Acta Hortic 1134:95–102CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  8. Hernández R, Kubota C (2014) Growth and morphological response of cucumber seedlings to supplemental red and blue photon flux ratios under varied solar daily light integrals. Sci Hortic 173:92–99CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  9. Hikosaka S, Iyoki S, Hayakumo M, Goto E (2013) Effects of light intensity and amount of supplemental LED lighting on photosynthesis and fruit growth of tomato plants under artificial conditions. J Agric Meteorol 69:93–100CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  10. Hogewoning SW, Douwstra P, Trouwborst G, van Ieperen W, Harbinson J (2010a) An artificial solar spectrum substantially alters plant development compared with usual climate room irradiance spectra. J Expt Bot 61:1267–1276CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  11. Hogewoning SW, Douwstra P, Trouwborst G, van Ieperen W, Harbinson J (2010b) Blue light dose-responses of leaf photosynthesis, morphology, and chemical composition of Cucumis sativas grown under different combinations of red and blue light. J Expt Bot 61:3107–3117CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  12. Hogewoning SW, Trouwborst G, Meinen M, van Ieperen W (2012) Finding the optimal growth-light spectrum for greenhouse crop. Acta Hortic 956:357–364CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  13. Ioslovich I (2009) Optimal control strategy for greenhouse lettuce: incorporating supplemental lighting. Biosyst Eng 103:57–67CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  14. Kinoshita T, Doi M, Suetsugu N, Kagawa T, Wada M, Shimazaki K (2001) phot1 and phot2 mediate blue light regulation of stomatal opening. Nature 414:656–660CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  15. Lee SG, Kim SK, Lee HJ, Choi CS, Park ST (2016) Impacts of climate change on the growth, morphological and physiological responses, and yield of Kimchi cabbage leaves. Hort Environ Biotechnol 57:470–477CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  16. Li Q, Kubota C (2009) Effects of supplemental light quality on growth and phytochemicals of baby leaf lettuce. Envion Expt Bot 67:59–64CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  17. MacLennan DA, Turner BP, Dolan JT, Ury MG, Gustafson P (1994) Efficient, full-spectrum, long-lived, non-toxic microwave lamp for plant growth. International Lighting in Controlled Environments WorkshopGoogle Scholar
  18. Ministry of Agriculture, Food and Rural Affairs (MAF) (2016) Primary statistics for agriculture production.
  19. Nelson JA, Bugbee B (2014) Economic analysis of greenhouse lighting: light emitting diodes vs. high Intensity discharge fixtures. PLoS ONE 9:e99010CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  20. Pepina S, Fortier É, Béchard-Dubé SA, Doraisb M, Ménard C, Bacon R (2014) Beneficial effects of using a 3-D LED interlighting system for organic greenhouse tomato grown in Canada under low natural light conditions. Acta Hortic 1041:239–246CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  21. Sage RF, Sharkey TD (1987) The effect of temperature on the occurrence of O2 and CO2 insensitive photosynthesis in field grown plants. Plant Physiol 84:658–664CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  22. Sage RF, Sharkey TD, Seemann JR (1989) Acclimation of photosynthesis to elevated CO2 in five C3 species. Plant Physiol 89:590–596CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  23. Sharkey TD, Bernacchi CJ, Farquar GD, Singsaas EL (2007) Fitting photosynthetic carbon dioxide response curves for C3 leaves. Plant Cell Environ 30:1035–1040CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  24. von Caemmerer S, Farquhar GD (1981) Some relationships between the biochemistry of photosynthesis and the gas exchange of leaves. Planta 153:376–387CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  25. Yang LY, Wang LT, Ma JH, Ma ED, Li JY, Gong M (2017) Effects of light quality on growth and development, photosynthetic characteristics and content of carbohydrates in tobacco (Nicotiana tabacum L.) plants. Photosynthetica 55:467–477CrossRefGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© Korean Society for Horticultural Science 2018

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Protected Horticulture Research Institute, National Institute of Horticultural and Herbal ScienceRural Development AdministrationHamanKorea
  2. 2.Vegetable Research Division, National Institute of Horticultural and Herbal ScienceRural Development AdministrationWanjuKorea

Personalised recommendations