Human Cell

, Volume 32, Issue 2, pp 88–94 | Cite as

Age-dependent decline in neurogenesis of the hippocampus and extracellular nucleotides

  • Yoshinori TakeiEmail author
Review Article


New neurons are continuously generated in the adult brain. This generation primarily occurs in the subventricular zone (SVZ) of the lateral ventricles and the subgranular zone (SGZ) of the hippocampal dentate gyrus. In the SGZ, neural stem cells (NSCs) give rise to glutamatergic granule cells that integrate into the hippocampal circuitry. Reduction of neurogenesis in the hippocampus impairs learning and memory, which suggests that this process is important for adult hippocampal function. Indeed, the neurogenesis is reduced in the progression of aging, which is thought to contribute to age-related cognitive impairment. Although the mechanism of age-dependent decline in neurogenesis remains largely obscure, astrocytes are thought to play a vital role in regulating NSC proliferation and differentiation. Both astrocytes and NSCs secrete nucleotides to the extracellular space and extracellular nucleotides bind to their receptors on the surface of target cells. In this review, the recent knowledge on adult neurogenesis in the hippocampus is summarized briefly, and possible role of extracellular nucleotides in the age-dependent changes of the adult neurogenesis is discussed.


Adult neurogenesis Neural stem cell Aging Extracellular nucleotides Wnt 



This work was supported by the Grant-in-Aid for Scientific Research (C) (JSPS KAKENHI number 23500392) and Grant-in-Aid for Exploratory Research (JSPS KAKENHI number 18K18454) from the Japan Society for the Promotion of Science.

Compliance with ethical standards

Conflict of interest

The authors declare that they have no conflicts of interest.


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Copyright information

© Japan Human Cell Society and Springer Japan KK, part of Springer Nature 2019

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Department of Nanobio Drug Discovery, Graduate School of Pharmaceutical ScienceKyoto UniversityKyotoJapan

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