Comparative analysis of metabolites in contrasting chickpea cultivars

  • Alokesh Ghosh
  • Abhishek Dadhich
  • Prakhar Bhardwaj
  • J. Nagendra Babu
  • Vinay KumarEmail author
Original Article


Chickpea (Cicer arietinum L.) is a good source of nutrients for animals and human consumption. In the present study, we analyzed the anthocyanin and total phenolic contents in two contrasting (desi and kabuli) chickpea cultivars. The quantification of anthocyanins showed higher amount in desi as compared to kabuli chickpea. The total phenolic contents was estimated in desi and kabuli chickpea using two different solvents (50% Acetone and 70% Methanol extracts) for coverage of all potential phenolic compounds. In continuation, desi chickpea culitvars (himchana and ICC4958) were found to be significantly higher total phenolic contents (in both solvent extracts) as compared to kabuli cultivars (JGK-03 and L-552). Higher phenolic contents was found to be directly correlated to higher anthocyanin contents in desi as compared to kabuli chickpea. The volatile organic compounds were also analyzed using gas chromatography mass spectroscopy technique in both cultivars. The significant compositional differences in volatile organic composition (polar and non-polar) of desi and kabuli cultivars were also found to be noticed using two different solvent extractions (methanol and chloroform). The comparative analysis of volatile organic acids in methanolic and chloroform extracts of desi cultivars (himchana and ICC4958), kabuli cultivars (JGK-03 and L-552) and between desi and kabuli cultivars was also carried out for in-depth understanding of the differential patterns of low molecular weight metabolites. Six metabolites were found to be common in all four selected cultivars in chloroform extracted samples, while four were found to be common in all four selected cultivars in methanolic extracted samples. The remaining detected metabolites are uncommon among different cultivars and represented as cultivar specific signatory metabolites. In conclusion, the present investigation revealed higher anthocyanin and phenolic contents in desi cultivars as compared to kabuli cultivars and differential accumulation of volatile organic compounds in chickpea cultivars. The metabolite alterations among desi and chickpea cultivars could be the potential attribute for diversity, resilience and commercial usuages.


Metabolites estimation Chickpea Desi and kabuli GC–MS Lipids Phenolics Anthocyanins 



Gas chromatography


Dimethyl sulfoxide


Mass spectroscopy


Fresh weight



Authors express deep gratitude to the Dr. Anita Babbar, Department of Plant Breeding and Genetics, JNKVV, Jabalpur (MP), India for providng JGK-03 and ICC4958 seed materials. The L-552 seed material was provided by Dr. Sarvjeet Singh and Dr. Gomti Grover from Punjab Agricultural University, Ludhiana (Pb), India. The himchana seed material was geneoursly gifted by Krishi Vigyan Kendra-CSK HPKV, Berthin (HP), India. Authors thank Mr. Ajit Paul Singh, STA for his help in analysis of samples by GC–MS technique. Authors also express thanks to editor and anonymous reviewers for their many insightful comments and suggestions.

Author’s contribution

VK conceived and designed present research. AG, AD and VK conducted experiments. AG, AD, PB, JNB and VK analyzed data. AD, PB and VK wrote the manuscript. All authors read and approved the manuscript.


“UGC-BSR start up grant” sanctioned to Dr. Vinay Kumar, sponsors this research.

Compliance with ethical standards

Conflict of interest

This article contains unpublished materials and original. Authors confirmed that all authors have read and approved the manuscript and there is not ethical issue involved and declare that there is no conflict of interest.

Supplementary material

13562_2019_530_MOESM1_ESM.pptx (520 kb)
Supplementary material 1 (PPTX 519 kb)


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Copyright information

© Society for Plant Biochemistry and Biotechnology 2019

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Department of BotanyCentral University of PunjabBathindaIndia
  2. 2.Department of ChemistryCentral University of PunjabBathindaIndia

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