Characterization and expression analysis of chalcone synthase and chalcone isomerase genes in Phyllanthus emblica (L.)

  • Kashmir Singh
  • Avneesh Kumar
  • Monika Kajal
  • Baljinder Singh
Original Article


The two decisive enzymes in flavonoid biosynthetic pathway are chalcone synthase (CHS) and chalcone isomerase (CHI), wherein the former carries the first committed step of the pathway and later is involved in isomerization of chalcone. In the present study, full-length cDNA sequence of both the genes (PeCHS and PeCHI) from Phyllanthus emblica (L.) were cloned and sequenced. The 390 and 209 amino acid long polypeptides of PeCHS and PeCHI are coded by 1514 bp nucleotide (nt) (ORF 1173 bp) and 843 bp nt (ORF 630 bp) sequences respectively. Computational analysis revealed the deduced protein of PeCHS contained four CHS protein family specific conserved motifs including residues of active sites and other signature sequences. Four conserved amino acids Thr-48, Tyr-106, Asn-113, and Thr-190 at active sites were identified in PeCHI. Both PeCHI and PeCHS were expressed in E. coli BL21 using pQE-30 UA vector. Expression analysis was carried out in different developmental stages i.e. leaf, flower and fruits. Expression of PeCHS was maximum in mature fruit while PeCHI expression was highest in young leaves. With respect to fruit, PeCHI expression lower down first and then increases with the maturation of fruit whereas PeCHS expression increases gradually with the development of fruit.


Chalcone synthase Chalcone isomerase Flavonoid biosynthesis Phyllanthus emblica Gene expression 



Arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi


Human influenza A


Chalcone synthase


Chalcone isomerise


Protein homology/analogy recognition engine V 2.0



Authors are grateful to Department of Science and Technology (DST) Govt. of India for providing research grant. Scholarship provided to Avneesh Kumar by Council of Scientific & Industrial Research (CSIR), is really appreciable. Monika Kajal is thankful to University Grant Commission (UGC), India for providing fellowship.

Compliance with ethical standards

Conflict of interest

The authors declare that they have no conflict of interest.

Supplementary material

13562_2018_467_MOESM1_ESM.ppt (1.2 mb)
Supplementary material 1 (PPT 1246 kb)


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Copyright information

© Society for Plant Biochemistry and Biotechnology 2018

Authors and Affiliations

  • Kashmir Singh
    • 1
  • Avneesh Kumar
    • 1
    • 2
  • Monika Kajal
    • 1
  • Baljinder Singh
    • 1
  1. 1.Department of BiotechnologyPanjab UniversityChandigarhIndia
  2. 2.Department of BotanyAkal UniversityTalwandi SaboIndia

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