Biomedical Engineering Letters

, Volume 9, Issue 3, pp 327–337 | Cite as

Advances in the simulation of light–tissue interactions in biomedical engineering

  • Ilya Krasnikov
  • Alexey SeteikinEmail author
  • Bernhard Roth
Review Article


Monte Carlo (MC) simulation for light propagation in scattering and absorbing media is the gold standard for studying the interaction of light with biological tissue and has been used for years in a wide variety of cases. The interaction of photons with the medium is simulated based on its optical properties and the original approximation of the scattering phase function. Over the past decade, with the new measurement geometries and recording techniques invented also the corresponding sophisticated methods for the description of the underlying light–tissue interaction taking into account realistic parameters and settings were developed. Applications, such as multiple scattering, optogenetics, optical coherence tomography, Raman spectroscopy, polarimetry and Mueller matrix measurement have emerged and are still constantly improved. Here, we review the advances and recent applications of MC simulation for the active field of the life sciences and the medicine pointing out the new insights enabled by the theoretical concepts.


Monte Carlo simulation Biotissue Light-matter interaction Scattering and absorbing media 



The State task of the Ministry of Education and Science of the Russian Federation (Project # 3.5022.3017/8.9). B.R. acknowledges funding by the Deutsche Forschungsgemeinschaft (DFG, German Research Foundation) under Germany’s Excellence Strategy within the Cluster of Excellence PhoenixD (EXC 2122).

Compliance with ethical standards

Conflict of interest

The authors have no conflicts of interest to declare.

Ethical approval

This article does not contain studies with human participants or animals.


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Copyright information

© Korean Society of Medical and Biological Engineering 2019

Authors and Affiliations

  • Ilya Krasnikov
    • 1
    • 2
  • Alexey Seteikin
    • 1
    • 2
    Email author
  • Bernhard Roth
    • 3
    • 4
  1. 1.Amur State UniversityBlagoveshchenskRussia
  2. 2.Immanuel Kant Baltic Federal UniversityKaliningradRussia
  3. 3.Hannover Centre for Optical TechnologiesHannoverGermany
  4. 4.Cluster of Excellence PhoenixDLeibniz University HannoverHannoverGermany

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