Increased Blood Lead Level Alters the Heme Biosynthesis and Haematological Parameters of Spray Painters from Western Maharashtra, India

  • Mandakini S. Kshirsagar
  • Arun J. PatilEmail author
  • Jyotsna A. Patil
Original Article



To assess the present status of blood lead levels and their effect on heme biosynthesis and hematological parameters of spray painters.


Forty two spray painters having the age range of 25–50 years were recruited for the study from Western Maharashtra, India and compared with age matched 50 healthy male subjects. Blood lead (PbB), erythrocytes d-ALDH, Urinary d-ALA, PBG and hematological parameters were measured.


PbB levels (p<0.001, 458%) of spray painters were significantly increased and Non-activated δ-ALAD (p<0.001, -20.21%), activated δ-ALAD (p<0.001, -28.25%) were significantly decreased and ratio of activated to non-activated δ-ALAD (p<0.001, 16%) was significantly increased in spray painters as compared to control subjects. Urinary δ-ALA (p<0.001, 160%) and PBG (p<0.001, 62.75%) levels were significantly increased in spray painters as compared to the control group. Hematological parameters of spray painters i.e. Hb (p<0.001, -21.58%) PCV (p<0.05, -4.53%) MCV (p<0.01, -5.09%) MCH (p<0.01, -6.04), MCHC (p<0.01, - 2.31) and RBC (p<0.001, - 8.06 %) were significantly decreased while total WBC count (p<0.001, 34.63%) was significantly increased as compared to the controls.


Increased PbB level in spray painters may be due to more absorption of lead thereby inhibiting heme biosynthesis enzymes and resulting in more excretion of urinary δ-ALA, PBG and alteration of hematological parameters. Therefore it is essential to monitor these spray painters and also it is necessary to create awareness for using adequate protective measures. Also necessary training and regular screening is required to minimize adverse impact of lead exposure to them.


Spray painters Blood lead Heme biosynthesis Hematological parameters 


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We express our deep gratitude to all the spray painters who consented to volunteer in the project. We also acknowledge the research facilities provided by the Krishna Institute of Medical Sciences “Deemed To Be University”, Karad. Authors are also grateful to authors/ editors/publishers of all those articles, journals and books from where the literature for this article has been reviewed and discussed. The funds and the all research facilities are provided by the Krishna Institute of Medical Sciences “Deemed To Be University”, Karad.


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Copyright information

© The Korean Society of Environmental Risk Assessment and Health Science and Springer 2019

Authors and Affiliations

  • Mandakini S. Kshirsagar
    • 1
  • Arun J. Patil
    • 1
    Email author
  • Jyotsna A. Patil
    • 1
  1. 1.Department of BiochemistryKrishna Institute of Medical SciencesKaradIndia

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