Enhancement of Alcohol Metabolism by Ginseng Berry Extract and its Mixed Herbal Beverages: In vitro and in vivo Experiments
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To investigate the enhancement of alcohol metabolism by two ginseng berry (GB) extracts and their two types of mixed herbal beverages through in vitro and in vivo experiments.
Two GB extract solutions and their two herbal beverages were evaluated as enhancers of alcohol metabolism in normal human embryonic liver cells (CL-48 cell line) through assays of alcohol dehydrogenase (ADH) and aldehyde dehydrogenase (ALDH) activity. Cytotoxicity was also assessed in the same cell line using an MTT assay. Effects on alcohol metabolism were also observed in vivo through measurement of serum alcohol, acetaldehyde, alanine aminotransferase (ALT), and aspartate aminotransferase (AST) levels in alcohol treated rats. Blood samples were serially collected at 1, 2, 3, 4, 6 and 8 hrs after a single ethanol (EtOH) treatment. A single treatment with the test samples was administered orally 30 minutes after EtOH treatment.
GB extract solutions effectively elevated the ADH and ALDH activity observed in vitro, while no treatment- related cytotoxic effects were found with test samples t concentrations up to 100 mg/mL. Significantly lower (p<0.01 or p<0.05) serum alcohol and acetaldehyde content was observed in samples from treated rats than in those from control rats (EtOH only) 1 or 2 hrs after EtOH treatment. In addition, noticeable decreases were observed in serum AST and ALT levels in treated samples 8 hrs after EtOH administration. HM40, an herbal mixture containing GB extract (40 mg/75 mL of ginsenoside Re), showed betters enhancement of alcohol metabolism through ADH/ALDH activation, as well as related hepatoprotective effects.
GB extracts effectively enhanced alcohol metabolism without cytotoxicity while also providing possible hepatoprotective effects that could serve as a functional ingredient in anti-hangover alternative therapies. These extracts are expected to be more effective when made into herbal mixture beverages.
KeywordsGinseng berry Mixed formulation Alcohol metabolism Rat Alcohol dehydrogenase Aldehyde dehydrogenase
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