Advertisement

WMU Journal of Maritime Affairs

, Volume 18, Issue 1, pp 103–128 | Cite as

License to intervene: the role of team adaptation in balancing structure and flexibility in offshore operations

  • Jan R. JonassenEmail author
  • Erik Hollnagel
Article
  • 46 Downloads

Abstract

The study reported here reviewed and analyzed multi-team organizations in offshore operations to identify and understand the factors that are essential for good operation. It was found that the most prominent contribution to good operations was the balancing of structure and flexibility during work (anchor handling operations). The enabling factor towards this balance seems to be a process of team adaptation, including adjustments and corrections, when performing operations. The multi-teams operate in an open climate with a commonly accepted allowance to stop any safety-threatened operational activity. In practice, this gives the operational teams a “license” to intervene and adjust or adapt to suddenly occurring anomalies. The operations are in turn based on a period of planning and preparing. During the actual balancing, the teams relied on communication and information sharing, coordination and cooperation, and anticipation (proactive behavior) and empowerment/autonomy as effective enablers of team adaptation.

Keywords

Leadership Safety Resilience Adjustments Multi-team Proactivity 

Notes

Acknowledgements

We want to thank the Research Council of Norway and nine companies in the petromaritime industries in Norway for having funded the RISKOP project (grant no.: 225311/O80) where this research is a part. The project covers research on risk and safety in offshore operations and is cofounded and managed by The Western Norway University of Applied Sciences. Our acknowledgements to our colleagues for useful comments during the RISKOP research workshop in May 2017: Helen Sampson, SIRC/Cardiff University, Rhona Flin, University of Aberdeen, Ole Andreas Engen, University of Stavanger, Richard Bagozzi, University of Michigan, Silvia Jordan, University of Innsbruck, Kari Skarholt and Gunnar Lamvik, both SINTEF, Norway and colleagues at Western University of Applied Sciences: Bjarne Vandeskog, Idar Alfred Johannessen, Chunyan Xie, Guro Fjeld, Lene Jørgensen, and Erik Mygind du Plessis. The authors are also grateful to the competent staff of the University’s library and IT department for assistance concerning formatting and reference check. Further, we thank our two anonymous reviewers for comments on earlier versions.

References

  1. Adamski AJ, Westrum R (2003) Requisite imagination. The fine art of anticipating what might go wrong. In: Hollnagel E (ed) Handbook of Cognitive Task Design. Lawrence Erlbaum Associates, Mahwah, p 193–220Google Scholar
  2. Aven T (2018) The call for a shift from risk to resilience: what does it mean? Risk Anal 2018.  https://doi.org/10.1111/risa.13247
  3. Aven T, Renn O (2018) Improving government policy on risk: eight key principles. Reliab Eng Syst Saf 176(2018):230–241.  https://doi.org/10.1016/j.ress.2018.04.018 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  4. Barton MA, Sutcliffe KM (2009) Overcoming dysfunctional momentum: organizational safety as a social achievement. Hum Relat 62(9):1327–1356.  https://doi.org/10.1177/0018726709334491 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  5. Bieder C, Bourrier M (eds) (2013) Trapping safety into rules. Ashgate, FarnhamGoogle Scholar
  6. Bigley GA, Roberts KH (2001) The incident command system: high-reliability organizing for complex and volatile task environments. Acad Manag J 44(6):1281–1299.  https://doi.org/10.2307/3069401 Google Scholar
  7. Burke SC, Stagl KC, Salas E, Piece L, Kendall D (2006) Understanding team adaptation: a conceptual analysis and model. J Appl Psychol 91(6):1189–1207.  https://doi.org/10.1037/0021-9010.91.6.1189 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  8. D’Innocenzo L, Luciano MM, Mathieu JE, Maynard MT, Chen G (2016) Empowered to perform: a multilevel investigation of the influence of empowerment on performance in hospital units. Acad Manag J 59(4):1290–1307.  https://doi.org/10.5465/amj.2013.1073 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  9. Edmondson A (1999) Psychological safety and learning behavior in work teams. Adm Sci Q 44(2):350–383CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  10. Entin EE, Serfaty D (1999) Adaptive team coordination. Hum Factors 41:312–325Google Scholar
  11. Faraj S, Xiao Y (2006) Coordination in fast-response organizations. Manag Sci 52(8):1155–1169.  https://doi.org/10.1287/mnsc.1060.0526 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  12. Gino F, Staats B (2015) Why organizations don’t learn. Harv Bus Rev 93(11):110–118Google Scholar
  13. Hollnagel E (2009) The four cornerstones of resilience engineering. In: Nemeth CP, Hollnagel E, Dekker S (eds) Preparation and restoration. Ashgate, Aldershot, pp 117–134Google Scholar
  14. Hollnagel E (2014) Safety – I and safety – II: the past and future of safety management. Ashgate, FarnhamGoogle Scholar
  15. Hollnagel E (2017) Safety-II in practice: developing the resilience potentials. Routledge, AbingdonCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  16. Hollnagel E, Woods DD, Leveson NC (eds) (2006) Resilience engineering: concepts and precepts. Ashgate, AldershotGoogle Scholar
  17. Johannessen IA, McArthur PW, Jonassen JR (2015) Informal leadership redundancy: balancing structure and flexibility in subsea operations. Scand J Manag 31(3):409–423.  https://doi.org/10.1016/j.scaman.2015.01.001 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  18. Jonassen JR (2015) Effects of multi-team leadership on collaboration and integration in subsea operations. International Journal of Leadership Studies 9(1):89–114 ISSN 1554–3145Google Scholar
  19. Klein KJ, Ziegert JC, Knight AP, Xiao Y (2006) Dynamic delegation: shared, hierarchical, and deindividualized leadership in extreme action teams. Adm Sci Q 51(4):590–621.  https://doi.org/10.2189/asqu.51.4.590 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  20. Kletz T (2001) Are disasters really getting worse? Disaster Prevention and Management: An International Journal 3(1):33–36.  https://doi.org/10.1108/09653569410049649 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  21. Krueger RA, Casey MA (2009) Focus Groups. A Practical Guide for Applied Research. Sage publications, Inc., CaliforniaGoogle Scholar
  22. Laschinger HKS (2008) Effect of empowerment on professional practice environments, work satisfaction, and patient care quality: further testing the nursing work-life model. J Nurs Care Qual 23(4):322–330.  https://doi.org/10.1097/01.NCQ.0000318028.67910.6b CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  23. Mathieu JE, Marks MA, Zaccaro SJ (2001) Multiteam systems. In: Anderson N, Ones DS, Sinangil HK, Viswesesvaran C (eds) Organizational psychology: Vol. 2. Handbook of industrial, work and organizational psychology. Sage, London, pp 289–313CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  24. Mathieu JE, Heffner TS, Goodwin GF, Cannon-Bowers JA, Salas E (2005) Scaling the quality of teammates’ mental models: equifinality and normative comparisons. J Organ Behav 26(1):37–56.  https://doi.org/10.1002/job.296 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  25. Maynard MT, Kennedy DM, Sommer A (2015) Team adaptation: a fifteen-year synthesis (1998-2013) and framework for how this literature needs to “adapt” going forward. European Journal of Work and Organizational Psychology 24(5):652–677.  https://doi.org/10.1080/1359432X.2014.1001376 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  26. Milch V, Laumann K (2016) Interorganizational complexity and organizational accident risk: a literature review. Saf Sci 82:9–17.  https://doi.org/10.1016/j.ssci.2015.08.010 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  27. Miller GA, Galanter E, Pribram KH (1960) Plans and the structure of behavior. Holt, New YorkCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  28. Nævestad TO, Størkersen KV, Phillips RO (2018) Procedure negligence in coastal cargo: what can be done to reduce the gap between formal and informal aspects of safety? Safety 2018(4):34.  https://doi.org/10.3390/safety4030034 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  29. Nonaka I, von Krogh G (2009) Perspective – tacit knowledge and knowledge conversion: controversy and advancement in organizational knowledge creation theory. Organ Sci 20(3):635–652.  https://doi.org/10.1287/orsc.1080.0412 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  30. Øyum L, Skarholt K, Ravn J, Nilsen T (2010) The industrial relations of safety. Differences in tripartite collaboration in Norwegian industries. In: Bris, Guedes, Soares, Matorell (eds) Reliability, Risk and Safety: Theory and Applications. Taylor & Francis Group, London, pp 1277–1284Google Scholar
  31. Power M (ed) (2016) Riskwork: essays on the organizational life of risk management. Oxford University Press, OxfordGoogle Scholar
  32. Reason J (2000) Safety paradoxes and safety culture. Inj Control Saf Promot 7(1):3–14.  https://doi.org/10.1076/1566-0974(200003)7:1;1-V;FT003 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  33. Reber AS (1989) Implicit learning and tacit knowledge. J Exp Psychol Gen 118(3):219–235.  https://doi.org/10.1037/0096-3445.118.3.219 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  34. Roberts KH (1990) Some characteristics of one type of high reliability organization. Organ Sci 1(2):160–176.  https://doi.org/10.1287/orsc.1.2.160 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  35. Rynd C (2017) A paradigm change in pilotage practice. Seaways, January 2017Google Scholar
  36. Skarholt K, Lamvik G, Antonsen S, Røyrvik J, Jonassen JR (2017) Economic crisis in the Norwegian offshore industry: how may it affect safety conditions in offshore operations? In: Walls J, Revie M, Bedford T (eds) Risk, reliability and safety, innovating theory and practice. CRC Press, Leiden, p 306 Retrieved October 10, 2016, from http://hdl.handle.net/11250/2413279 Google Scholar
  37. Tinmannsvik, R. K., Albrechtsen, E., Bråtveit, M., Carlsen, I. M., Fylling, I., Hauge, S., … Øien, K. (2011) Deepwater Horizon ulykken: Årsaker, lærepunkter og forbedringstiltak for norsk sokkel (Deepwater Horizon accident: causes, learning points and improvement measures for the Norwegian continental shelf). SINTEF, TrondheimGoogle Scholar
  38. Vandeskog B (2017) Arbeidslag-spillets estetikk og evnen til å forutse (The aesthetics of teamwork and the ability to predict). Norsk Antropologisk Tidsskrift 27(3–4):226–245 2017 Universitetsforlaget, ISSN 0802-7285Google Scholar
  39. Weick KE, Roberts KH (1993) Collective mind in organizations: heedful interrelating on flight decks. Adm Sci Q 38(3):357–381CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  40. Weick KE, Sutcliffe KM (2015) Managing the unexpected: Sustained Performance in a Complex World, 3rd edn. John Wiley & Son, New JerseyGoogle Scholar
  41. Westrum R (1991) Technologies & Society. The shaping of people and things. Wadsworth Publishing Company, Belmont, CAGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© World Maritime University 2019

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Western Norway University of Applied SciencesHaugesundNorway
  2. 2.Høgskulen på VestlandetBergenNorway
  3. 3.Patient Safety at Jönköping UniversityJönköpingSweden
  4. 4.NivåDenmark

Personalised recommendations