Advertisement

What is marine justice?

  • Jennifer A. MartinEmail author
  • Summer Gray
  • Eréndira Aceves-Bueno
  • Peter Alagona
  • Tammy L. Elwell
  • Angela Garcia
  • Zach Horton
  • David Lopez-Carr
  • Jessica Marter-Kenyon
  • Karly Marie Miller
  • Christopher Severen
  • Teresa Shewry
  • Becky Twohey
Review
  • 35 Downloads

Abstract

Marine justice is presented as a bridging concept and opportunity for scholars, activists, and policy-makers to combine differing methods of knowledge production and communication to promote and deepen justice in an era of global environmental change, sea level rise, overfishing, ocean acidification, and other coastal and marine issues. We open with an exploration of the historical connections between the study of seascapes and the emergence and development of environmental justice. We then discuss five conceptual domains—space, time, knowledge, participation in decision-making, and enforcement—in which attention to marine environments resonates with and expands environmental justice framings. Using a series of examples to illustrate how environmental justice and marine issues converge in scholarship and activism, we argue that this coming-together of concepts creates new avenues for research and inquiry.

Keywords

Climate Environmental justice Fishing Oceans Pollution Marine environments 

Notes

Acknowledgments

The Andrew W. Mellon Foundation Sawyer Seminar, The Institute for Social, Behavioral, and Economic Research and The Interdisciplinary Humanities Center at the University of California, Santa Barbara, David Pellow, and all of our seminar visitors.

Compliance with ethical standards

Disclaimer

The views expressed in this paper are solely those of the authors and do not necessarily reflect those of the Federal Reserve Bank of Philadelphia or the Federal Reserve System. Any errors or omissions are the responsibility of the authors.

References

  1. Adeola F (2000) Cross-national environmental injustice and human rights issues: a review of evidence in the developing world. Am Behav Sci 43:686–706CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  2. Alaimo S (2013) Violet Black. In: Cohen JJ (ed) Prismatic ecology: ecotheory beyond green. University of Minnesota Press, Minneapolis, pp 233–251CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  3. Allison EH, Ratner BD, Åsgård B, Willmann R, Pomeroy R, Kurien J (2012) Rights-based fisheries governance: from fishing rights to human rights. Fish Fish 13(1):14–29CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  4. Almeida P, Stearns L (1998) Political opportunities and local grassroots environmental movements: the case of Minamata. Soc Probl 45:37–61CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  5. Anderson K (2006) Does history count? Endeavor 30:150–155CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  6. Anderson K, Rozwadowski H (eds) (2016) Soundings and crossings: doing science at sea, 1800–1970. Science History Publications, Sagamore Beach, MAGoogle Scholar
  7. Banzhaf HS (2012) The political economy of environmental justice. Stanford Economics and Finance, an imprint of Stanford University Press, StanfordCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  8. Barnett J, Adger WN (2003) Climate dangers and atoll countries. Climate Change 61:321–337CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  9. Benford R (2005) The half-life of environmental justice frame: innovation, diffusion, and stagnation. In: Pellow D, Brulle R (eds) Power, justice, and the environment: a critical appraisal of the environmental justice movement. MIT Press, Cambridge, pp 37–54Google Scholar
  10. Bolster WJ (2012) The mortal sea: fishing the Atlantic in the age of sail. Belknap Press, CambridgeCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  11. Brown Weiss E (1989) In fairness to future generations: international law, common patrimony, and intergenerational equity. United Nations University, TokyoGoogle Scholar
  12. Brown Weiss E (1990) Our rights and obligations to future generations for the environment. Am J Int Law 84:198–207CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  13. Brulle, RJ (2000) Agency, democracy, and nature: the U.S. environmental movement from a critical theory perspective. MIT Press, CambridgeGoogle Scholar
  14. Bullard RD (1990) Dumping in dixie. Westview, BoulderGoogle Scholar
  15. Carey M (2010) In the shadow of melting glaciers: climate change and Andean society. Oxford University Press, New YorkCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  16. Chappell D (2005) In quest of dialogue on a “hot” subject. Contemp Pac 17:336–338CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  17. Ciplet D, Roberts JT, Khan MR (2015) Power in a warming world: the new global politics of climate change and the remaking of environmental inequality. MIT Press, CambridgeCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  18. Cole L, Foster S (2000) From the ground up: environmental racism and the rise of the environmental justice movement. New York University Press, New YorkGoogle Scholar
  19. D’Arcy P (2008) The people of the sea: environment, identity and history in Oceania. University of Hawai’i, HonoluluGoogle Scholar
  20. D’Amato A (1990) Do we owe a duty to future generations to preserve the global environment? Am J Int Law 84:190–198CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  21. Dawson A (2010) Climate justice: the emerging movement against green capitalism. South Atl Q 109:313–338.  https://doi.org/10.1215/00382876-2009-036 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  22. Dawson A (2013) How we forgot the sea. Soc Text Retrieved from http://socialtextjournal.org/periscope_article/how-we-forgot-the-sea/. Accessed 27 Mar 2019
  23. Deacon M (1997) Scientists and the sea, 1650–1900: a study of marine science. Ashgate, BrookfieldGoogle Scholar
  24. Dé Ishtar Z (1994) Daughters of the Pacific. Spinifex Press, North MelbourneGoogle Scholar
  25. Dening G (1980) Islands and beaches: discourse on a silent land, Marquesas, 1774–1880. University Press of Hawaii, HonoluluGoogle Scholar
  26. Dening G (2004) Beach crossings: voyaging across times, cultures, and self. University of Pennsylvania Press, PhiladelphiaGoogle Scholar
  27. Ekino S, Susa M, Ninomiya T, Imamura K, Kitamura T (2007) Minamata disease revisited: an update on the acute and chronic manifestations of methyl mercury poisoning. J Neurol Sci 262:131–144CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  28. Elliott JR, Pais J (2006) Race, class, and hurricane Katrina: social differences in human responses to disaster. Soc Sci Res 35:295–321CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  29. Erlandson JM, Rick T (2010) Archaeology meets marine ecology: the antiquity of maritime cultures and human impacts on marine fisheries and ecosystems. Annu Rev Mar Sci 2:231–251CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  30. Estrada, A (2012) UCSB receives $175,000 grant for seminar on comparative study of cultures. Current. https://www.news.ucsb.edu/2012/013348/ucsb-receives-175000-grant-seminar-comparative-study-cultures. Accessed 07 Feb 2019
  31. Faber D (ed) (1998) The struggle for ecological democracy: environmental justice movements in the United States. Guilford, New YorkGoogle Scholar
  32. Farbotko C (2010) Wishful sinking: disappearing islands, climate refugees and cosmopolitan experimentation. Asia Pac Viewp 51:47–60CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  33. Farbotko C, Lazrus H (2012) The first climate refugees? Contesting global narratives of climate change in Tuvalu. Glob Environ Chang 22:382–390CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  34. Finley C (2011) All the fish in the sea: maximum sustainable yield and the failure of fisheries management. University of Chicago Press, ChicagoCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  35. Firth S (2005) A comment on “The Nuclear Issue in the South Pacific”. Contemp Pac 17:359–362CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  36. Frazão Santos C, Domingos T, Ferreira MA, Orbach M, Andrade F (2014) How sustainable is sustainable marine spatial planning? Part I—linking the concepts. Mar Policy 49:59–65CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  37. Freudenberg W et al (2009) Catastrophe in the making: the engineering of Katrina and the disasters of tomorrow. Island Press, Washington, DCGoogle Scholar
  38. Freudenberg N, Steinsapir C (1992) Not in our backyards: the grassroots environmental movement. In: Dunlap R, Mertig A (eds) The US environmental movement, 1970–1990. Taylor and Francis, Washington, DC, pp 27–38Google Scholar
  39. Friends of the Earth Scotland (1999) The campaign for environmental justice. Friends of the Earth ScotlandGoogle Scholar
  40. Getches D, Pellow D (2002) Beyond ‘traditional’ environmental justice: how large a tent? In: Mutz K, Bryner G, Kenney D (eds) Justice and natural resources: concepts, strategies, and applications. Island Press, Washington DC, pp 3–30Google Scholar
  41. Gottlieb R (1993) Forcing the spring: the transformation of the American environmental movement. Island Press, Washington, DCGoogle Scholar
  42. Grainger C, Costello C (2016) Distributional effects of the transition to property rights in a common pool resource. Mar Resour Econ 31:1–26CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  43. Gubbay, S (1995) Marine protected areas: past, present and future. In: Gubbay, S (ed) Marine protected areas: principles and techniques for management. Springer Netherlands, pp. 1–14Google Scholar
  44. Gustavsson M, Lindström L, Jiddawi NS, de la Torre-Castro M (2014) Procedural and distributive justice in a community-based managed marine protected area in Zanzibar, Tanzania. Mar Policy 46:91–100CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  45. Hallowes D (ed) (1993) Hidden faces: environment, development, justice: South Africa and the global context. Earthlife Africa Distributed by Russel Friedman Books, Scottsville, South AfricaGoogle Scholar
  46. Halpern B et al (2013) Achieving the triple bottom line in the face of inherent, trade-offs among social equity, economic return, and conservation. PNAS 110:6229–6234CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  47. Hamblin J (2005) Oceanographers and the cold war: disciples of marine science. University of Washington Press, SeattleGoogle Scholar
  48. Hamblin J (2008) Poison in the well: radioactive waste in the oceans at the dawn of the nuclear age. Rutgers University Press, New BrunswickGoogle Scholar
  49. Hamilton JT (1995) Testing for environmental racism: prejudice, profits, political power? J. Policy Anal Manag 14(1):107–132CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  50. Hannesson R (1985) Inefficiency through government regulations: the case of Norway’s fishery policy. Mar Resour Econ 2:115–141CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  51. Hardy DR, Milligan RA, Heynen N (2017) Racial coastal formation: the environmental injustice of colorblind adaptation planning for sea-level rise. Geoforum 87:62–72CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  52. Harlan S, Pellow D, Roberts JT, Bell SE, Holt W, Nagel J (2015) Climate justice and inequality. In: Dunlap R, Brulle R (eds) Climate change and society: sociological perspectives. Oxford University Press, New York, pp 127–163CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  53. Harvey D (1996) Justice, nature and the geography of difference. Blackwell, CambridgeGoogle Scholar
  54. Helmreich S (2009) Alien Ocean: anthropological voyages in microbial seas. University of California Press, Berkeley, CAGoogle Scholar
  55. Hubbard J (2014) In the wake of politics: the political and economic construction of fisheries biology, 1860–1970. Isis 105:364–378CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  56. Igler D (2013) The great ocean: pacific worlds from captain cook to the gold rush. Oxford University Press, New YorkGoogle Scholar
  57. Ingersoll KA (2016) Waves of knowing: a seascape epistemology. Duke University Press, DurhamCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  58. Jackson JBC (2010) The future of the oceans past. Philos T Roy Soc B 365:3765–3778CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  59. Jackson JBC, Kirby MX, Berger WH, Bjorndal KA, Botsford LW, Bourque BJ, Bradbury RH, Cooke R, Erlandson J, Estes JA, Hughes TP, Kidwell S, Lange CB, Lenihan HS, Pandolfi JM, Peterson CH, Steneck RS, Tegner MJ, Warner RR (2001) Historical overfishing and the recent collapse of coastal ecosystems. Sci 293:629–637CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  60. Japan. Kankyōshō. Sōgō Kankyō Seisakukyoku (2013) Lessons from Minamata disease and mercury management in JapanGoogle Scholar
  61. Johnston BR, Barker HM (2008) Consequential damages of nuclear war: the Rongelap report. Left Coast Press, Walnut Creek, CAGoogle Scholar
  62. Kahmann B, Stumpf KH, Baumgärtner S (2015) Notions of justice held by stakeholders of the Newfoundland fishery. Mar Policy 62:37–50CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  63. Kahrl A (2015) Fear of an open beach: public rights and private interests in 1970s coastal Connecticut. J Am Hist 102:433–462CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  64. Kidd S, Shaw D (2014) The social and political realities of marine spatial planning: some land-based reflections. ICES J Mar Sci J Cons 71:1535–1541CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  65. Kuletz V, Adamson J, Evans MM, Stein R (2002) The movement for environmental justice in the Pacific islands. In: The environmental justice reader: politics, poetics, and pedagogy. University of Arizona Press, Tucson, pp 125–142Google Scholar
  66. Lee C (ed) (1992) The first national people of color environmental leadership summit, the Washington Court on Capital Hill, Washington, DC, October 24–27, 1991: proceedings. The Commission, New YorkGoogle Scholar
  67. Levine AS, Richmond L, Lopez-Carr D (2015) Marine resource management: culture, livelihoods, and governance. Appl Geogr 59:56–59CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  68. Liu J, Dietz T, Carpenter SR, Alberti M, Folke C, Moran E, Pell AN, Deadman P, Kratz T, Lubchenco J, Ostrom E, Ouyang Z, Provencher W, Redman CL, Schneider SH, Taylor WW (2007) Complexity of coupled human and natural systems. Science 317:1513–1516CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  69. Longo SB, Clark B (2016) An ocean of troubles: advancing marine sociology. Soc Probl 63:463–479CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  70. Loomis DK, Ditton RB (1993) Distributive justice in fisheries management. Fisheries 18:14–18CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  71. Maclellan N (2005) The nuclear age in the Pacific islands. Contemp Pac 17:363–372CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  72. Martinez-Alier J, Temper L, Del Bene D, Scheidel A (2016) Is there a global environmental justice movement? J Peasant Stud 43:731–755CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  73. McArdle D et al (2003) California marine protected areas: past and present. California Sea Grant College Program. University of California, La JollaGoogle Scholar
  74. McEvoy AF (1986) The fisherman’s problem: ecology and law in the California fisheries, 1850–1980. Cambridge University Press, CambridgeCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  75. McGurty EM (1997) From NIMBY to civil rights: the origins of the environmental justice movement. Environ Hist 2:301–323CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  76. McGurty EM (2007) Transforming environmentalism: Warren county, PCBs, and the origins of environmental justice. Rutgers University Press, New BrunswickGoogle Scholar
  77. McKee Y (2012) Of survival: climate change and uncanny landscape in the photography of Subhankar Banerjee. In: Sussman H (ed) Impasses of the post-global: theory in the era of climate change, vol 2. Open Humanities Press, MichiganGoogle Scholar
  78. McKibben B (1989) The end of nature. Random House, New YorkGoogle Scholar
  79. Mills E (1989) Biological oceanography: an early history, 1870–1960. Cornell University Press, IthacaGoogle Scholar
  80. Mills E (2009) The fluid envelope of our planet: how the study of ocean currents became a science. University of Toronto Press, TorontoCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  81. Mizelle R (2014) Backwater blues: the Mississippi flood of 1927. University of Minnesota Press, MinneapolisCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  82. Mohai P, Pellow D, Roberts JT (2009) Environmental justice. Annu Rev Environ Resour 34:405–430CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  83. Morse R (2008) Environmental justice through the eye of hurricane Katrina. Joint Center for Political and Economic Studies. Health Policy Institute, Washington, DCGoogle Scholar
  84. Nicholls R, Hanson S, Herweijer C, Patmore N, Hallegatte S, Corfee-Morlot J, Château J, Muir-Wood R (2008) Ranking port cities with high exposure and vulnerability to climate extremes. Organisation for Economic Co-operation and Development, ParisGoogle Scholar
  85. Nixon R (2011) Slow violence and the environmentalism of the poor. Harvard University Press, CambridgeCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  86. Okereke C, Charlesworth M (2014) Environmental and ecological justice. In: Betsill M, Hochstetler, Stevis D (eds) Advances in international environmental politics. Palgrave Macmillian, New York, pp 328–355Google Scholar
  87. Ostrom E (2007) A diagnostic approach for going beyond panaceas. P Natl Acad Sci USA 104:15181–15187CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  88. Ostrom E, Burger J, Field CB, Norgaard RB, Policansky D (1999) Revisiting the commons: local lessons, global challenges. Science 284:278–282CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  89. Pellow D (2007) Resisting global toxics: transnational movements for environmental justice. MIT Press, CambridgeCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  90. Pellow D (2018) What is critical environmental justice? Polity Press, MedfordGoogle Scholar
  91. Pellow D, Brulle R (2005) Power, justice and environment: a critical appraisal of the environmental justice movement. MIT Press, CambridgeGoogle Scholar
  92. Pilkey OH, Young R (2011) The rising sea. Island Press, New YorkGoogle Scholar
  93. Polidoro BA, Carpenter KE, Collins L, Duke NC, Ellison AM, Ellison JC, Farnsworth EJ, Fernando ES, Kathiresan K, Koedam NE, Livingstone SR, Miyagi T, Moore GE, Nam VN, Ong JE, Primavera JH, Salmo SG, Sanciangco JC, Sukardjo S, Wang Y, Yong JWH (2010) The loss of species: mangrove extinction risk and geographic areas of global concern. PLoS One 5(4):e10095CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  94. Pollack S, Grozuczak J (1984) Reagan, toxics, and minorities: a policy report. Urban Environment Conference, Washington, DCGoogle Scholar
  95. Reidy M, Rozwadowski H (2014) The spaces in between: science, ocean, empire. Isis 105:338–351CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  96. Roberts C (2013) The ocean of life: the fate of man and the sea. Penguin Books, New YorkGoogle Scholar
  97. Roberts JT, Parks BC (2007) A climate of injustice: global inequality, north-south politics, and climate change. MIT Press, CambridgeGoogle Scholar
  98. Roberts JT, Toffolon-Weiss MM (2001) Chronicles from the environmental justice frontline. Cambridge University Press, New YorkCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  99. Rozwadowski H (2005) Fathoming the ocean: the discovery and exploration of the deep sea. Belknap Press, CambridgeCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  100. Rozwadowski H (2014) Introduction. Isis 105:335–337CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  101. Rozwadowski H, Van Keuren D (eds) (2004) The machine in neptune’s garden: historical perspectives on technology and the marine environment. Science History Publications, Sagamore Beach, MAGoogle Scholar
  102. Salesa D (2014) The Pacific in indigenous time. In: Armitage D, Bashford A (eds) Pacific histories: ocean, land, people. Palgrave Macmillan, New York, pp 31–52CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  103. Schlosberg D (2007) Defining environmental justice: theories, movements, and nature. Oxford University Press, New YorkCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  104. Sekula, A, and Burch, N (dir) (2010) The Forgotten SpaceGoogle Scholar
  105. Shewry T (2015) Hope at sea: possible ecologies in oceanic literature. University of Minnesota Press, MinneapolisCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  106. Sikor T, Newell P (2014) Globalizing environmental justice? Geoforum 54:151–157CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  107. Sinclair PR (1990) Fisheries management and problems of social justice. MAST 3(1):30–47Google Scholar
  108. Starosielski N (2015) The undersea network. Duke University Press, DurhamCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  109. Steady F (ed) (2009) Environmental justice in the new millennium: global perspectives on race, ethnicity, and human rights. Palgrave Macmillan, New YorkGoogle Scholar
  110. Steinberg P (1999) Lines of division, lines of connection: stewardship in the world ocean. Geogr Rev 89:254–264CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  111. Steinberg P (2001) The social construction of the ocean. Cambridge University Press, New YorkGoogle Scholar
  112. Steinberg P (2013) Of other seas: metaphors and materialities in maritime regions. Atl Stud 10:156–169CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  113. Steinberg T (2014) Can New York City survive the sea? Dissent 61:60–64CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  114. Strauss B et al (2012) Tidally adjusted estimates of topographic vulnerability to sea level rise and flooding for the contiguous United States. Environ Res Lett 7:1–12.  https://doi.org/10.1088/1748-9326/7/1/014033 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  115. Superstorm Research Lab (2013) A tale of two Sandys. New YorkGoogle Scholar
  116. Tate M, Hull DM (1964) Effects of nuclear explosions on Pacific islanders. Pac Hist Rev 33:379–393CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  117. Taylor DE (2000) The rise of the environmental justice paradigm. Am Behav Sci 43(4):508–580Google Scholar
  118. Teaiwa TK (1994) Bikinis and other s/pacific n/oceans. Contemp Pac 6(1):87–109Google Scholar
  119. Te Punga Somerville A (2012) Once were Pacific: Māori connections to Oceania. University of Minnesota Press, MinneapolisCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  120. Tetiarahi G (2005) French nuclear testing in the South Pacific, or when France makes light of its duty to remember. Contemp Pac 17:378–381CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  121. United Church of Christ and Commission for Racial Justice (1987) Toxic wastes and race in the United States: a national report on the racial and socio-economic characteristics of communities with hazardous waste sites. Inquiries to the Commission, New YorkGoogle Scholar
  122. United Nations Environment Program (2012) Green economy in a blue world: synthesis report. UNEP DEPI, NairobiGoogle Scholar
  123. Urban Environment Conference (1985) Taking back our health: an institute on surviving the toxics threat to minority communities. Urban Environment Conference, Washington, DCGoogle Scholar
  124. Wadewitz L (2012) The nature of borders: salmon, boundaries, and bandits on the Salish Sea. UBC Press, SeattleGoogle Scholar
  125. Walker B (2010) Toxic archipelago: a history of industrial disease in Japan. University of Washington Press, SeattleGoogle Scholar
  126. Walker G (2009) Globalizing environmental justice: the geography and politics of frame contextualization and evolution. Glob Soc Policy 9:355–382CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  127. Walker G (2012) Environmental justice: concepts, evidence and politics. Routledge, New YorkCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  128. Warne K (2011) Let them eat shrimp: the tragic disappearance of the rainforests of the sea. Island Press, Washington, DCCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  129. Westra L, Lawson B (eds) (2001) Faces of environmental racism: confronting issues of global justice. Rowman & Littlefield, LanhamGoogle Scholar
  130. Widener P (2018) Coastal people dispute offshore oil exploration: toward a study of embedded seascapes, submersible knowledge, sacrifice, and marine justice. Environ Sociol 4:405–418CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  131. Wise S (2014) Learning through experience: non-implementation and the challenges of protected area conservation in the Bahamas. Mar Policy 46:111–118CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  132. World Commission on Environment and Development (1987) Our common future. Oxford University Press, OxfordGoogle Scholar
  133. Young O (1982) The political economy of fish: the fishery conservation and management act of 1976. Ocean Devpt & Interl Law 10:199–273CrossRefGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© AESS 2019

Authors and Affiliations

  • Jennifer A. Martin
    • 1
    Email author
  • Summer Gray
    • 1
  • Eréndira Aceves-Bueno
    • 2
    • 3
  • Peter Alagona
    • 1
  • Tammy L. Elwell
    • 4
  • Angela Garcia
    • 5
  • Zach Horton
    • 6
  • David Lopez-Carr
    • 3
  • Jessica Marter-Kenyon
    • 7
  • Karly Marie Miller
    • 3
  • Christopher Severen
    • 8
  • Teresa Shewry
    • 9
  • Becky Twohey
    • 10
  1. 1.Environmental StudiesUniversity of CaliforniaSanta BarbaraUSA
  2. 2.Nicholas School of the EnvironmentDuke UniversityBeaufortUSA
  3. 3.Bren School of Environmental Science & ManagementUniversity of CaliforniaSanta BarbaraUSA
  4. 4.Department of GeographyUniversity of CaliforniaSanta BarbaraUSA
  5. 5.Center for Evolution and MedicineArizona State UniversityTempeUSA
  6. 6.Department of EnglishUniversity of PittsburghPittsburghUSA
  7. 7.Department of Agricultural Leadership, Education & CommunicationUniversity of GeorgiaAthensUSA
  8. 8.Research DepartmentPhiladelphiaUSA
  9. 9.Department of EnglishUniversity of CaliforniaSanta BarbaraUSA
  10. 10.The Coral Reef AllianceOaklandUSA

Personalised recommendations