Genetic polymorphism of eNOS (G894T) gene in insulin resistance in type 2 diabetes patients of Pakistani population

  • Abdullah Abdo Albegali
  • Muhammad ShahzadEmail author
  • Saqib Mahmood
  • Muhammad Ikram Ullah
  • Ali Amar
  • Osheen Sajjad
Original Article



Insulin resistance associated with type 2 diabetes (T2DM) consequences in the development of metabolc syndrome. Due to the complex mechanism, various pathogenic factors like enviromental and genetic predispositon contribute to the disease pathogenicity. The reduced availability of eNOS has been determined as a mark of insulin resistance pathogenesis.


The objctive of this study was to investigate genetic polymorphism of eNOS (rs1799983; G894T) with susceptibility of insulin resistance in type 2 diabetes (T2DM) patients from Pakistani population.


Total of 322 (161 T2DM cases and 161 healthy controls) subjects were recruited for this study. Genomic DNA extraction was carried out by standard phenol-chloroform protocols. PCR amplification of the unique oligonucleotides of eNOS gene was done and restriction fragment analysis (RFLP) was performed by site-specific enzyme BanII.


The frequency of GG (wild genotype) was higher (77.6%) in cases than in controls (47.2%), heterozygous GT genotype higher in controls than patients (OR = 0.26, p < 0.0005 and after adjustment, OR = 0.34, p = 0.091). Different genetic models like dominant model of GT&TT was higher in controls than patients (OR 0.26, p < 0.0005; OR 0.29, p = 0.038 respectively) and log-additive model indicated the significant protective effect of the genotype before and after adjustment for the confounding factors.


This study demonstrates that there is no association between eNOS rs1799983 polymorphism and insulin resistance in T2DM patients of Pakistani population.


Insulin resistance T2DM Genetic polymorphism eNOS gene Pakistan 



I would like to thank the Department of Human Genetics for helpful assistance. I wish to thank Mrs. Amara, Lab Manager of department of pharmacology for continuous support.

Compliance with ethical standards

Ethical approval and consent to participate

All participants provided written informed consent and all protocols were approved by the Ethics Committee of University of Health Sciences, Lahore. Additionally, the research and recruitment protocols were carried out according to the Ethical Principles for Medical Research Involving Human Subjects adopted in the Declaration of Helsinki by the World Medical Association. All samples used in the study followed standardized rules governing sample handling, and information obtained in the interview was recorded on standardized data collection forms.

Competing interests

The authors declare that they have no conflicts of interest.


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Copyright information

© Research Society for Study of Diabetes in India 2019

Authors and Affiliations

  • Abdullah Abdo Albegali
    • 1
  • Muhammad Shahzad
    • 1
    Email author
  • Saqib Mahmood
    • 2
  • Muhammad Ikram Ullah
    • 3
  • Ali Amar
    • 2
  • Osheen Sajjad
    • 4
  1. 1.Department of PharmacologyUniversity of Health SciencesLahorePakistan
  2. 2.Department of Human Genetics and Molecular BiologyUniversity of Health SciencesLahorePakistan
  3. 3.Department of Clinical Laboratory SciencesJouf UniversitySakakaKingdom of Saudi Arabia
  4. 4.Institute of Biomedical and Allied Health SciencesUniversity of Health SciencesLahorePakistan

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