Incidence of metabolic syndrome in rural pre-menopausal women and associated risk factors

  • Dimple JamkhandiEmail author
  • Anu Mary Oommen
  • Kuryan George
  • Jasmin Prasad
Original Article


The prevalence of metabolic syndrome (MetS) is increasing in the Asia Pacific region, as well as globally. This study was aimed at determining the incidence of MetS and associated risk factors among pre-menopausal women in rural Vellore, Tamil Nadu, South India. A community-based non-concurrent cohort design was used to study the incidence and risk factors associated with MetS in women from a rural block in Vellore district. Pre-menopausal women aged 38–45 years free of MetS in 2011–2012 were followed up 5 years later, for MetS. Body mass index (BMI), waist circumference, blood pressure, fasting glucose, and lipids were measured in addition to diet and physical activity. Cumulative incidence was calculated, and adjusted odds ratios (OR) obtained using logistic regression to measure association with risk factors. The cumulative 5-year incidence of metabolic syndrome among women aged 38–45 years was 32.5% (95% confidence interval (CI), 25.9–39. 1%). Women engaged in moderate physical activity alone were more likely to have MetS than those with vigorous activity (adjusted odds ratio (OR), 2.68; 95% confidence interval, 1.08–6.69). Those with BMI ≥ 23 kg/m2 were more likely to have MetS compared to those with a lower BMI (adjusted OR, 10.38; 95% CI, 3.50–30.80). Around one-third of pre-menopausal women aged 38–45 years developed metabolic syndrome within 5 years, in rural Vellore, South India. This high incidence emphasizes the need for raising awareness about risk factors for metabolic syndrome and encouraging lifestyle changes that may eventually help in reducing overall cardiovascular risk.


Metabolic syndrome Incidence Pre-menopausal women 



This work received financial support from the Fluid Research Grant, Christian Medical College Vellore (IRB Min No 10249).

Compliance with ethical standards

Conflict of interest

The authors declare that there was no conflict of interests.

Ethical approval

The study was approved by the Institutional Review Board of the institution. All procedures performed in studies involving human participants were in accordance with the ethical standards of the institutional and/or national research committee and with the 1964 Helsinki declaration and its later amendments or comparable ethical standards.

Informed consent

Informed consent was obtained from all individual participants included in the study.


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Copyright information

© Research Society for Study of Diabetes in India 2019

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Community Health DepartmentChristian Medical CollegeVelloreIndia

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