A 2018 clinical practice pattern in the management of diabetes in India and Nepal: a three-city study

  • Deep DuttaEmail author
  • Dina Shrestha
  • Deepak Khandelwal
  • Manash Baruah
  • Sanjay Kalra
  • Sameer Agarwal
  • Saptarshi Bhattacharya
  • Rajiv Singla
  • Vineet Surana
Original Article


Knowledge, awareness, and practices with regard to diabetes management in south Asia are not known. This study aimed to determine current clinical practices with regard to managing diabetes in Nepal and India. Doctors attending conferences in Delhi, Guwahati, and Kathmandu were evaluated regarding their diabetes treatment preferences using a standardized questionnaire having 34 multiple-choice questions. The questionnaire evaluated doctor’s preferences on therapeutic lifestyle modification, pharmacotherapy, and insulin injection practices. From a total of 409 filled questionnaires which were collected, 261, 75, and 73 questionnaires from New Delhi, Guwahati, and Kathmandu, respectively, which fulfilled all criteria, were analyzed. The mean age of doctors was 42.26 ± 11.99 years. Low carbohydrate, high protein was the most frequently recommended diet plan. The use of carbohydrate counting in practice was non-existent. Self-monitoring of blood glucose (SMBG) is commonly used in practice with 1–2 times per day checking. The preferred second, third, and fourth oral agents after metformin were sulfonylureas (53.05%), glucosidase inhibitors (37.16%), and dipeptidyl-peptidase-4 inhibitors (DPP4i) (42.79%) respectively. Glimepiride (73.83%) and gliclazide (28.60%) were the most preferred sulfonylureas. Teneligliptin (31.54%), sitagliptin (23.71%), linagliptin (22.24%), and vildagliptin (16.38%) were the preferred DPP4i. Dapagliflozin (30.56%), empagliflozin (20.29%), and canagliflozin (8.85%) were the preferred sodium-glucose co-transporter-2 inhibitor (SGLT2i). Insulin use was delayed in type-2 diabetes, typically initiated only after glycemic control not adequate with five oral anti-diabetes agents (OADs) (50.36%). The most preferred insulin was basal insulin analogue (47.68%) followed by neutral protamine hagedorn (NPH) insulin (22.24%). Most patients received < 20 U of insulin/day (56.96%). The most commonly used short-acting insulin in pregnancy was lispro (204; 49.88%). The preferred long-acting insulin in pregnancy was NPH insulin (180; 44.01%). Lack of use of digital technology, less use of lifestyle modifications, delayed use of insulin, preference for multiple OADs, popularity of sulfonylureas and alpha-glucosidase inhibitors (AGIs), and late use of SGLT2i were some of the key highlights of diabetes practice in south Asia.


Diabetes therapy India Nepal Treatment practices Pattern Guidelines 


Compliance with ethical standards

Conflict of interest

The authors declare that they have no conflict of interest.

Ethical approval

All procedures performed in studies involving human participants were in accordance with the ethical standards of the institutional and/or national research committee and with the 1964 Helsinki declaration and its later amendments or comparable ethical standards.

Informed consent

Informed consent was obtained from all individual participants included in the study.


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Copyright information

© Research Society for Study of Diabetes in India 2018

Authors and Affiliations

  • Deep Dutta
    • 1
    Email author return OK on get
  • Dina Shrestha
    • 2
  • Deepak Khandelwal
    • 3
  • Manash Baruah
    • 4
  • Sanjay Kalra
    • 5
  • Sameer Agarwal
    • 6
  • Saptarshi Bhattacharya
    • 7
  • Rajiv Singla
    • 8
  • Vineet Surana
    • 9
  1. 1.Department of EndocrinologyCEDAR Super-Specialty Clinics & Venkateshwar HospitalsDwarka, New DelhiIndia
  2. 2.Department of EndocrinologyNorvic HospitalsKathmanduNepal
  3. 3.Department of EndocrinologyMaharaj Agrasen HospitalNew DelhiIndia
  4. 4.Department of EndocrinologyExcel CenterGuwahatiIndia
  5. 5.Department of EndocrinologyBharti HospitalsKarnalIndia
  6. 6.Department of EndocrinologyApex HospitalsRohtakIndia
  7. 7.Department of EndocrinologyMax Patparganj HospitalsNew DelhiIndia
  8. 8.Department of EndocrinologyKalpavriksha CenterNew DelhiIndia
  9. 9.Department of Endocrinology Diabetes & MetabolismManipals HospitalNew DelhiIndia

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