Microporous carbon from cashew nutshell pyrolytic biochar and its potential application as CO2 adsorbent
- 47 Downloads
Cashew nutshell (CNS)–based biochar is obtained as a by-product in a pilot scale (20 kg/h) gas-fired auger pyrolysis reactor at 500 °C during bio oil production. This pyrolytic biochar has low BET surface area (BET SA 0.80 m2/g) and poor porosity as the fast pyrolysis conditions are set to augment the bio oil yield over other products. To value add to this carbon, downstream activation is performed in an externally heated lab scale reactor. Formation of activated carbon with BET SA between 300 and 700 m2/g with moderate improvement in porosity ensued from CO2 and steam activation, while chemical activation with K2CO3 enhanced the BET SA to 1225 m2/g and Langmuir surface area to 1707 m2/g in addition to significant enhancement of porosity. CNS-based activated carbons predominantly possess narrow pore size distribution with small-sized micropores and ultra-micropores limiting the presence of mesopores. The effect of equilibrium time (10 s and 45 s) on N2 adsorption is extensively studied, and it is found to have a significant role in detection of ultra-micropores below 0.8 nm (at very low pressures). The CO2 absorptivity of K2CO3-activated CNS carbon is found to be between 4.16 and 6.22 mmol/g (i.e. 183.04–273.6 mg/g) at atmospheric pressure and 0 °C. These activated CNS carbons possess ultra-micropores between 0.46 and 0.8 nm suitable for CO2 uptake. This study shows the sustainable path of making CO2 adsorbent from a low-cost renewable biomass precursor like CNS.
KeywordsCashew nutshell Pyrolytic biochar Activated carbon K2CO3 activation CO2 adsorption DR plot
This research is supported by Department of Science and Technology, India, through the Australia-India Strategic Research Fund (DST/INT/AUS/GCP-5/13 (C)).
- 2.Government of India Ministry of Agriculture, Farmers Welfare ( 2016) Department of Agriculture, Cooperation & Farmers Welfare Directorate of Economics and Statistics, Agricultural Statistics at a Glance. https://eands.dacnet.nic.in/PDF/Glance-2016.pdf (accessed 28 January 2019).
- 3.Sanger SH, Mohod AG, Khandetode YP, Shrirame HY, Deshmukh AS (2011) Study of carbonization for cashew nut shell. Res J Chem Sci 1:43–55Google Scholar
- 10.Senthil PK, Abhinaya RV, Lashmi KG, Arthi V, Pavithra R, Sathyaselvabala V, Kirupha SD, Sivanesan S (2011) Adsorption of methylene blue dye from aqueous solution by agricultural waste: equilibrium, thermodynamics, kinetics, mechanism and process design. Colloid J 73(5):647–657Google Scholar
- 11.Tangjuank S, Insuk N, Tontrakoon J, Udeye V (2009) Adsorption of lead(II) and cadmium(II) ions from aqueous solutions by adsorption on activated carbon prepared from cashew nut shells, World Academy of Science, Engineering and Technology. Int J Chem Mol Nucl Mater Metall Eng 3(4):221–227Google Scholar
- 12.Tangjuank S, Insuk N, Udeye V, Tontrakoon J (2009) Chromium (III) sorption from aqueous solutions using activated carbon prepared from cashew nut shells. Int J Phys Sci 4(8):412–417Google Scholar
- 14.Senthil PK, Ramalingam S, Abhinaya RV, Kirupha SD, Murugesan A, Sivanesan S (2012) Adsorption of metal ions onto the chemically modified agricultural waste. Clean: Soil, Air, Water 40(2):188–197Google Scholar
- 19.Sivakumar B, Kannan C, Karthikeyan S (2012) Preparation and characterization of activated carbon prepared from Balsamodendron caudatum wood waste through various activation processes. Rasayan J Chem 5(3):321–327Google Scholar
- 20.Jambulingam M, Karthikeyan S, Sivakumar P, Kiruthika J, Maiyalagan T (2007) Characteristic studies of some activated carbons from agricultural wastes. J Sci Ind Res 66(6):495–500Google Scholar
- 28.Manya JJ, Gonzalez B, Azuara M, Arner G (2018) Ultra-microporous adsorbents prepared from vine shoots-derived bio char with high CO2 uptake and CO2/N2 selectivity. Chem Eng J 345:631–639. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.cej.2018.01.092
- 29.Yang J, Yue L, Hu X, Wang L, ZhaoY LY, Sun Y, Da Costa H, Guo L (2017) Efficient CO2 capture by porous carbons derived from coconut shell. Energy Fuel 31(4):4287–4293. https://doi.org/10.1021/acs.energyfuels.7b00633
- 30.Coconut Development Board, Ministry of agriculture and Farmer Welfare Board, Government of India. www.coconutboard.gov.in. Accessed 29 Mar 2019
- 32.Webb PA, Orr C, Camp RW, Oliver JP, Yunes YS (1997) Analytical methods in fine particle technology. In: Surface area and pore structure by gas adsorption. Micromeritics Instrument Corporation, Georgia USA, pp 53–152 http://www.micromeritics.com/Library/Analytical-Methods-in-Fine-Particle-Technology.aspx. Accessed 29 Mar 2019
- 50.Coromina HM, Walsh DA, Mokaya R (2015) Biomass-derived activated carbon with simultaneously enhanced CO2 uptake for both pre and post combustion capture applications. J Mater Chem A. https://doi.org/10.1039/c5ta09202g
- 54.Moussa M, Bader N, Querejeta N, Duran I, Pevida C, Ouederni A (2017) Towards sustainable hydrogen storage and carbon dioxide capture in post-combustion conditions. J Environ Chem Eng 5(2):1628–1637. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.jece.2017.03.003M