Utilization of coconut meal, a waste product of milk processing, as a novel substrate for biodiesel and bioethanol production
Coconut meal, a waste product left after coconut milk processing, was collected and utilized as raw substrate for biofuel production. Biofuel production was produced via two steps. Biodiesel was first produced from coconut meal’s oil. Afterward, bioethanol was produced by Saccharomyces cerevisiae, using coconut waste after oil extraction as the sole carbon source. In this study, oil extraction methods, including chill and centrifugation, fermentation, and dry processing, were determined. The highest yield was obtained from dry processing (42.2%). The moisture and free fatty acid content of waste coconut oil (WCO) was 0.1% and 0.3–0.5%, respectively. Therefore, WCO was favourable to use as a substrate for biodiesel production. The highest biodiesel yield (98.1%) was observed from an alkali catalyst. Fuel properties of biodiesel from WCO met the biodiesel standard of the USA (ASTM D6751-07) and Europe (EN 14214). Thereafter, solid coconut waste (SCW) after oil extraction was collected and pre-treated using 50% NaOH. Cellulose content (62.1%) significantly increased after alkali pre-treatment. Thereafter, pre-treated SCW was hydrolysed with cellulase derived from Trichoderma viride and Aspergillus niger. Glucose (20.3 g/L) was a major end product in enzymatic hydrolysate. SCW hydrolysate was utilized as fermentation medium without nutritional supplementation. The production of ethanol constantly increased and reached 8.5 g/L (equivalent to 82.4% of theoretical yield) after 60 h.
KeywordsBiodiesel Bioethanol Cellulase Coconut meal Separate hydrolysis and fermentation SHF
Kanokphorn Sangkharak designed the experiment, conducted research work, compiled data and wrote the manuscript. Kamolphan Chookun conducted research work pertaining to bioethanol, Jutamas Numreung conducted research work pertaining to biodiesel, and Poonsuk Prasertsan is mentor.
This work was supported by the Department of Chemistry, Faculty of Science, Thaksin University (Research project grant) and the Thailand Research Fund (TRF) Grant for Researcher (project number RSA 6180066 and RTA6080010).
Compliance with ethical standards
Conflict of interest
The authors declare that they have no conflict of interest.
This article does not contain any studies with human participants performed by any of the authors.
- 1.Pahl G (ed) (2005) Biodiesel: growing a new energy economy. Chelsea Green Pub Co, ChelseaGoogle Scholar
- 7.Sulaiman S, Abdul Ramanl AA, Aroual MK (2010) Coconut waste as a source for biodiesel production. 2nd International Conference on Chemical, Biological and Environmental Engineering (ICBEE 2010) p 254–256. doi https://doi.org/10.1109/ICBEE.2010.5653534
- 9.Van Dam JEG (2002) Coir processing technologies: improvement of drying, softening, bleaching and dyeing coir fibre/yarn and printing coir floor covering. Technical Paper No. 6, Common Fund Commod, AmsterdamGoogle Scholar
- 10.Serechodchawong P, Sangkharak K (2014) The production of biodiesel and ethanol from pressed coconut. Thaksin J 17:103–110Google Scholar
- 11.Karnasuta S, Punsuvon V, Nokkaew R (2015) Biodiesel production from waste coconut oil in coconut milk manufacturing. Walailak J Sci Tech 12:291–298Google Scholar
- 12.Sulaiman S, Abdul Aziz AR, Aroual MK (2014) Biodiesel production from solid coconut waste. Adv Environ Biol 8:781–786Google Scholar
- 13.Bawalan DD, Chapman KR (2006) Virgin coconut oil production manual for micro- and village-scale processing. In FAO Regional Office for Asia and Pacific. Thammada Press Co Ltd, Bangkok, pp 80. www.fao.org/3/a-lot726e.pdf. Accessed 12 March 2019
- 15.Carandang EV (2008) Health benefits of virgin coconut oil explained. Idian Coconut J 1:8–12Google Scholar
- 18.APCC (Asian Pacific Coconut Community) (2009) APCC standards for virgin coconut oil. Asian and Pacific Coconut Community, Indonesia. http://www.apccsec.org/document/VCNO.PDF. Accessed 12 March 2019
- 19.Horwitz DW (2000) Official methods of analysis of AOAC international. AOAC International, GaithersburgGoogle Scholar
- 21.American Oil Chemists' Society, Firestone D (2009) Official methods and recommended practices of the AOCS. Urbana, Ill: AOCSGoogle Scholar
- 22.Riguady J, Klesney SP (1992) Standard methods for the analysis of oils, fats, and derivatives. Nomenclature of organic chemistry, IUPAC, 7th edn. Pergamon Press, OxfordGoogle Scholar
- 27.Grohmann K, Himmel M, Rivard C, Tucker M, Baker J, Torget R, Graboski M (1984) Chemical-mechanical methods for the enhanced utilization of straw. Biotechnol Bioeng symp 14:137–157Google Scholar
- 38.Talha NS, Sulaiman S (2016) Overview of catalysts in biodiesel production. J Eng Appl Sci 11:439–448Google Scholar
- 40.Rakkan T, Suwanno S, Pichid N, Yunu T, Klomklao S, Sangkharak K (2017) Optimized synthesis method for transesterification of residual oil from palm oil mill effluent and lipase from Pacific white shrimp (Litopenaeus vannamei) hepatopancreas to environmental friendly biodiesel. Fuel 209:309–314CrossRefGoogle Scholar
- 43.Vaithanomsat P, Apiwatanapiwat W, Chumchuent N, Kongtud W, Sundhrarajun S (2011) The potential of coconut husk utilization for bioethanol production. Kasetsart J Nat Sci 45:159–164Google Scholar
- 44.Sangkharak K, Samae WC (2011) Conversion of leafwaste to sugar and ethanol by SHF and SSF fermentation using cellulase from Cellulomonas sp. Int J Adv Biotechnol Res 2:345–349Google Scholar
- 45.Moraes MSA (2012) Analysis of products from pyrolysis of Brazilian sugar cane straw. Fuel Process Technol 93:24–43Google Scholar
- 49.Soares J, Demeke MM, Van de Velde M, Kerstens D, Sels BF, Verplaetse A, Fernandes AAR, Thevelein JM, Fernandes PMB (2017) Fed-batch production of green coconut hydrolysates for high-gravity second generation bioethanol fermentation with cellulosic yeast. Bioresour Technol 224:234–242CrossRefGoogle Scholar
- 51.Ding TY, Hii SL, Ong LGA (2012) Comparison of pretreatment strategies for conversion of coconut husk fiber to fermentable sugars. Bioresour Technol 7:1540–1547Google Scholar
- 54.Zabed H, Faruq G, Sahu JN, Azirun MS, Hashim R, Boyce AN (2014) Bioethanol production from fermentable sugar juice. Sci Word J 957102, 11 pagesGoogle Scholar
- 55.Reddy V, Sang-Arun J (2011) Promoting coconut-based agro-ecosystem and efficient product utilization for augmenting on-farm income, improving quality of environment and conserving natural resources. Occasional paper. IGES, 25 pagesGoogle Scholar