Advertisement

Utilization of coconut meal, a waste product of milk processing, as a novel substrate for biodiesel and bioethanol production

  • Kanokphorn SangkharakEmail author
  • Kamolphan Chookhun
  • Jutamas Numreung
  • Poonsuk Prasertsan
Original Article

Abstract

Coconut meal, a waste product left after coconut milk processing, was collected and utilized as raw substrate for biofuel production. Biofuel production was produced via two steps. Biodiesel was first produced from coconut meal’s oil. Afterward, bioethanol was produced by Saccharomyces cerevisiae, using coconut waste after oil extraction as the sole carbon source. In this study, oil extraction methods, including chill and centrifugation, fermentation, and dry processing, were determined. The highest yield was obtained from dry processing (42.2%). The moisture and free fatty acid content of waste coconut oil (WCO) was 0.1% and 0.3–0.5%, respectively. Therefore, WCO was favourable to use as a substrate for biodiesel production. The highest biodiesel yield (98.1%) was observed from an alkali catalyst. Fuel properties of biodiesel from WCO met the biodiesel standard of the USA (ASTM D6751-07) and Europe (EN 14214). Thereafter, solid coconut waste (SCW) after oil extraction was collected and pre-treated using 50% NaOH. Cellulose content (62.1%) significantly increased after alkali pre-treatment. Thereafter, pre-treated SCW was hydrolysed with cellulase derived from Trichoderma viride and Aspergillus niger. Glucose (20.3 g/L) was a major end product in enzymatic hydrolysate. SCW hydrolysate was utilized as fermentation medium without nutritional supplementation. The production of ethanol constantly increased and reached 8.5 g/L (equivalent to 82.4% of theoretical yield) after 60 h.

Keywords

Biodiesel Bioethanol Cellulase Coconut meal Separate hydrolysis and fermentation SHF 

Notes

Author contribution

Kanokphorn Sangkharak designed the experiment, conducted research work, compiled data and wrote the manuscript. Kamolphan Chookun conducted research work pertaining to bioethanol, Jutamas Numreung conducted research work pertaining to biodiesel, and Poonsuk Prasertsan is mentor.

Funding

This work was supported by the Department of Chemistry, Faculty of Science, Thaksin University (Research project grant) and the Thailand Research Fund (TRF) Grant for Researcher (project number RSA 6180066 and RTA6080010).

Compliance with ethical standards

Conflict of interest

The authors declare that they have no conflict of interest.

Ethical approval

This article does not contain any studies with human participants performed by any of the authors.

References

  1. 1.
    Pahl G (ed) (2005) Biodiesel: growing a new energy economy. Chelsea Green Pub Co, ChelseaGoogle Scholar
  2. 2.
    Zeng J, Wang X, Zhao B, Sun J, Wang Y (2008) Rapid in situ transesterification of sunflower oil. Ind Eng Chem Res 48:850–856CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  3. 3.
    Su E, You P, Wei D (2009) In situ lipase-catalyzed reactive extraction of oilseeds with short-chained dialkyl carbonates for biodiesel production. Bioresour Technol 100:5813–5817CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  4. 4.
    Lei H, Ding X, Zhang H, Chen X, Li Y, Zhang H, Wang Z (2010) In situ production of fatty acid methyl ester from low quality rice bran: an economical route for biodiesel production. Fuel 89:1475–1479CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  5. 5.
    Fazal MA, Haseeb ASMA, Masjuki HH (2011) Biodiesel feasibility study: an evaluation of material compatibility; performance; emission and engine durability. Renew Sust Energ Rev 15:1314–1324CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  6. 6.
    Balat M (2011) Production of bioethanol from lignocellulosic materials via the biochemical pathway: a review. Energy Convers Manag 52:858–875CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  7. 7.
    Sulaiman S, Abdul Ramanl AA, Aroual MK (2010) Coconut waste as a source for biodiesel production. 2nd International Conference on Chemical, Biological and Environmental Engineering (ICBEE 2010) p 254–256. doi  https://doi.org/10.1109/ICBEE.2010.5653534
  8. 8.
    Bolivar-Telleria M, Turbay C, Favarato L, Carneiro T, de Biasi RS, Fernandes AAR, Santos AMC, Fernands PMB (2018) Second-generation bioethanol from coconut husk. Biomed Res Int 2018:1–20.  https://doi.org/10.1155/2018/4916497 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  9. 9.
    Van Dam JEG (2002) Coir processing technologies: improvement of drying, softening, bleaching and dyeing coir fibre/yarn and printing coir floor covering. Technical Paper No. 6, Common Fund Commod, AmsterdamGoogle Scholar
  10. 10.
    Serechodchawong P, Sangkharak K (2014) The production of biodiesel and ethanol from pressed coconut. Thaksin J 17:103–110Google Scholar
  11. 11.
    Karnasuta S, Punsuvon V, Nokkaew R (2015) Biodiesel production from waste coconut oil in coconut milk manufacturing. Walailak J Sci Tech 12:291–298Google Scholar
  12. 12.
    Sulaiman S, Abdul Aziz AR, Aroual MK (2014) Biodiesel production from solid coconut waste. Adv Environ Biol 8:781–786Google Scholar
  13. 13.
    Bawalan DD, Chapman KR (2006) Virgin coconut oil production manual for micro- and village-scale processing. In FAO Regional Office for Asia and Pacific. Thammada Press Co Ltd, Bangkok, pp 80. www.fao.org/3/a-lot726e.pdf. Accessed 12 March 2019
  14. 14.
    Raghavendra SN, Raghavarao KMS (2010) Effect of different treatments for the destabilization of coconut milk emulsion. J Food Eng 97:341–347CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  15. 15.
    Carandang EV (2008) Health benefits of virgin coconut oil explained. Idian Coconut J 1:8–12Google Scholar
  16. 16.
    Suwanno S, Rakkan T, Yunu T, Paichid N, Kimtun P, Prasertsan P, Sangkharak K (2017) Feasibility of residual oil form palm oil mill effluent and crude lipase from oil palm fruit as a biodiesel substrate and catalyst. Fuel 195:82–87CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  17. 17.
    Ghani NAA, Channip AA, Hwa PCH, Ja’afar F, Yasin HM, Usman A (2018) Physiochemical properties, antioxidant capacities, and metal contents of virgin coconut oil produced by wet and dry process. Food Sci Nutr 6:1298–1306CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  18. 18.
    APCC (Asian Pacific Coconut Community) (2009) APCC standards for virgin coconut oil. Asian and Pacific Coconut Community, Indonesia. http://www.apccsec.org/document/VCNO.PDF. Accessed 12 March 2019
  19. 19.
    Horwitz DW (2000) Official methods of analysis of AOAC international. AOAC International, GaithersburgGoogle Scholar
  20. 20.
    Blinova L, Fiala J, Balog K (2014) Biodiesel production from waste cooking oil in laboratory scale. Appl Mech Mater 448-453:1656–1659CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  21. 21.
    American Oil Chemists' Society, Firestone D (2009) Official methods and recommended practices of the AOCS. Urbana, Ill: AOCSGoogle Scholar
  22. 22.
    Riguady J, Klesney SP (1992) Standard methods for the analysis of oils, fats, and derivatives. Nomenclature of organic chemistry, IUPAC, 7th edn. Pergamon Press, OxfordGoogle Scholar
  23. 23.
    Bueso F, Moreno L, Cedeno M, Manzanarez K (2015) Lipase-catalyzed biodiesel production and quality with Jatropha curcas oil: exploring its potential for Central America. J Biol Eng 9:12–18CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  24. 24.
    Schwab AW, Bagby MO, Freedman B (1987) Preparation and properties of diesel fuels from vegetable oils. Fuel 66:1372–1378CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  25. 25.
    Miller GL (1959) Use of dinitrosalicylic acid reagent for determination of reducing sugar. Anal Chem 31:426–428CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  26. 26.
    Foyle T, Jenning L, Mulcahy P (2007) Compositional analysis of lignocellulosic materials: evaluation of methods used for sugar analysis of waste paper and straw. Bioresour Technol 98:3026–3036CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  27. 27.
    Grohmann K, Himmel M, Rivard C, Tucker M, Baker J, Torget R, Graboski M (1984) Chemical-mechanical methods for the enhanced utilization of straw. Biotechnol Bioeng symp 14:137–157Google Scholar
  28. 28.
    Sangkharak K (2011) Optimization of enzymatic hydrolysis for ethanol production by simultaneous saccharification and fermentation of wastepaper. Waste Manag Res 29:1134–1144CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  29. 29.
    Cabral MMS, de Souza Abud AK, de Farias Silva CE, Almeida RMRG (2016) Bioethanol production from coconut husk fiber. Cienc Rural 46:1872–1877CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  30. 30.
    Jeihanipour A, Taherzadeh MJ (2009) Ethanol production from cotton-based waste textiles. Bioresour Technol 100:1007–1010CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  31. 31.
    Gouveia ER, do Nascimento RT, Souto-Maior AM, de Moraes Rocha GJ (2009) Validation of methodology for the chemical characterization of sugar cane bagasse. Quim Nova 32:1500–1503CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  32. 32.
    Agu RC, Amadife AE, Ude CM, Onya A, Ogu EO, Okafor M, Zejiofor E (1997) Combined heat treatment and acid hydrolysis of cassava grate waste (CGW) biomass for ethanol production. Waste Manag 17:91–96CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  33. 33.
    Oseni NT, Fernando WMADB, Coorey R, Gold I, Jayasena V (2017) Effect of extraction techniques on the quality of coconut oil. Afr J Food Sci 11:58–66CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  34. 34.
    Nour AH, Mohammed FS, Yunnus RM, Arman A (2009) Demulsification of virgin coconut oil by centrifugation method: a feasibility study. Int J Chem Technol 1:59–64CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  35. 35.
    Ruan C, Xing W, Ja TDS (2012) Potential of five plants growing on unproductive agricultural lands as biodiesel resources. Renew Energ 41:191–199CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  36. 36.
    Lam MK, Lee KT, Mohamed AR (2010) Homogeneous, heterogeneous and enzymatic catalysis for transesterification of high free fatty acid oil (waste cooking oil) to biodiesel: a review. Biotechnol Adv 28:500–518CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  37. 37.
    Sharma YC, Singh B (2008) Development of biodiesel from karanja, a tree found in rural India. Fuel 67:1740–1742CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  38. 38.
    Talha NS, Sulaiman S (2016) Overview of catalysts in biodiesel production. J Eng Appl Sci 11:439–448Google Scholar
  39. 39.
    Leung DYC, Wu X, Leung MKH (2010) A review on biodiesel production using catalyzed transesterification. Appl Energy 87:1083–1095CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  40. 40.
    Rakkan T, Suwanno S, Pichid N, Yunu T, Klomklao S, Sangkharak K (2017) Optimized synthesis method for transesterification of residual oil from palm oil mill effluent and lipase from Pacific white shrimp (Litopenaeus vannamei) hepatopancreas to environmental friendly biodiesel. Fuel 209:309–314CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  41. 41.
    Kuepethkaew S, Sangkharak K, Benjakul S, Klomklao S (2017) Optimized synthesis of biodiesel using lipase from Pacific white shrimp (Litopenaeus vannamei) hepatopancreas. Renew Energy 104:139–147CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  42. 42.
    Mutsumoto T, Samukawa S, Kaieda M, Ueda M, Tanaka A, Fukuda H, Kondo A (2001) Yeast whole-cell biocatalyst constructed by intracellular overproduction of Rhizopus oryzae lipase is applicable to biodiesel fuel production. Appl Microbiol Biotechnol 57:515–520CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  43. 43.
    Vaithanomsat P, Apiwatanapiwat W, Chumchuent N, Kongtud W, Sundhrarajun S (2011) The potential of coconut husk utilization for bioethanol production. Kasetsart J Nat Sci 45:159–164Google Scholar
  44. 44.
    Sangkharak K, Samae WC (2011) Conversion of leafwaste to sugar and ethanol by SHF and SSF fermentation using cellulase from Cellulomonas sp. Int J Adv Biotechnol Res 2:345–349Google Scholar
  45. 45.
    Moraes MSA (2012) Analysis of products from pyrolysis of Brazilian sugar cane straw. Fuel Process Technol 93:24–43Google Scholar
  46. 46.
    Sun Y, Cheng J (2002) Hydrolysis of lignocellulosic materials for ethanol production: a review. Bioresour Technol 83:1–11CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  47. 47.
    Huang Y, Krauss G, Cottaz S, Driguez H, Lipps G (2005) A highly acid-stable and thermostable endo-β-glucanase from the thermoacidophilic archaeon Sulfolobus solfataricus. Biochem J 385:581–588CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  48. 48.
    Jannah AM, Asip F (2015) Bioethanol production from coconut fiber using alkaline pretreatment and acid hydrolysis method. Int J Adv Sci Eng Inf Techno 5:320–322CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  49. 49.
    Soares J, Demeke MM, Van de Velde M, Kerstens D, Sels BF, Verplaetse A, Fernandes AAR, Thevelein JM, Fernandes PMB (2017) Fed-batch production of green coconut hydrolysates for high-gravity second generation bioethanol fermentation with cellulosic yeast. Bioresour Technol 224:234–242CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  50. 50.
    Soares J, Demeke MM, Foulquie-Moreno MR, Van de Velde M, Verplaetse A, Fernandes AA, Thevelein JM, Fernandes PM (2016) Green coconut mesocarp pretreated by an alkaline process as raw material for bioethanol production. Bioresour Technol 216:744–753CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  51. 51.
    Ding TY, Hii SL, Ong LGA (2012) Comparison of pretreatment strategies for conversion of coconut husk fiber to fermentable sugars. Bioresour Technol 7:1540–1547Google Scholar
  52. 52.
    Goncalves FA, Ruiz HA, Dos Santos ES, Teixeira JA, De Macedo GR (2015) Bioethanol production from coconuts and cactus pretreated by autohydrolysis. Ind Crop Prod 77:1–12CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  53. 53.
    Dien BS, Cotta MA, Jeffries TW (2003) Bacteria engineered for fuel ethanol production: current status. Appl Microbiol Biotechnol 63:258–266CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  54. 54.
    Zabed H, Faruq G, Sahu JN, Azirun MS, Hashim R, Boyce AN (2014) Bioethanol production from fermentable sugar juice. Sci Word J 957102, 11 pagesGoogle Scholar
  55. 55.
    Reddy V, Sang-Arun J (2011) Promoting coconut-based agro-ecosystem and efficient product utilization for augmenting on-farm income, improving quality of environment and conserving natural resources. Occasional paper. IGES, 25 pagesGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer-Verlag GmbH Germany, part of Springer Nature 2019

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Department of Chemistry, Faculty of ScienceThaksin UniversityPhatthalungThailand
  2. 2.Research and Development OfficePrince of Songkla UniversitySongkhlaThailand

Personalised recommendations