Characterization of solid biofuel produced from banana stalk via hydrothermal carbonization

  • Md. Atikul Islam
  • Md. Ali Akber
  • Sharif Hassan Limon
  • Md. Ahedul Akbor
  • Md. Azharul IslamEmail author
Original Article


In this study, banana stalk was used as a feedstock to produce hydrochar by hydrothermal carbonization (HTC). The effect of varying carbonization temperature (160 to 200 °C), varying reaction time (1 to 3 h) on yield, and higher heating value (HHV) of hydrochar was examined. With increasing temperature and reaction time, the hydrochar yield varied from 57.8 to 75.3%, whereas HHV varied from 18.1 to 18.9 MJ/kg. The carbon content, energy density, and energy recovery of all of the hydrochars were improved after conversion. The decrease of the O/C and H/C values was in agreement with the increasing coalification of hydrochars with increasing the severity of HTC conditions. The surface characteristics and thermal degradation properties of hydrochars were also assessed by Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR) and thermogravimetric analysis (TGA). The low ash and sulfur content after the HTC process indicates that banana stalk hydrochar can be a potential raw material for energy production.


Banana stalk Hydrochar Solid fuel Agricultural waste 


Funding information

The authors gratefully acknowledge the Bangladesh Bureau of Educational Information & Statistics (BANBEIS), Ministry of Education, Government of Bangladesh, under advanced research in education scheme (No.37.20.0000. for financial support.


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Copyright information

© Springer-Verlag GmbH Germany, part of Springer Nature 2019

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Environmental Science DisciplineKhulna UniversityKhulnaBangladesh
  2. 2.Forestry and Wood Technology DisciplineKhulna UniversityKhulnaBangladesh
  3. 3.Analytical Research DivisionBangladesh Council of Scientific & Industrial Research (BCSIR)DhakaBangladesh

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