An overview of OPS from oil palm industry as feedstock for bio-oil production

  • Sundus Saeed Qureshi
  • Sabzoi NizamuddinEmail author
  • Humair Ahmed Baloch
  • M. T. H. Siddiqui
  • N. M. MubarakEmail author
  • G. J. Griffin
Review Article


Oil palm industry generates different types of waste biomass in the form of oil palm empty fruit bunch (OPEFB), oil palm mesocarp fibers (OPMF), oil palm fronds (OPF), oil palm trunks (OPT), oil palm bark (OPB), oil palm leaves (OPL), and oil palm shell (OPS). These biomass wastes possess a great energy potential to be converted into biofuels, particularly bio-oil. Among all, the OPS have favorable physicochemical characteristics to be converted into bio-oil. Therefore, this paper mainly focuses to review the suitability of OPS as feedstock for bio-oil production compared to other oil palm biomasses. The physicochemical characteristics of the OPS, in terms of heating value, ultimate analysis, proximate analysis, and lignocellulosic composition, are presented and compared to those of the OPEFB, OPMF, OPF, OPT, OPB, and OPL. To illustrate further and signify the stability, the abovementioned properties of OPS bio-oil are also reviewed and compared to those of bio-oils produced from OPEFB, OPF, OPB, OPL, and petroleum fuels. The challenges and future prospects of OPS as a source of bio-oil are addressed and compared with other wastes of oil palm industry. Additionally, methods used for bio-oil production from oil palm industry biomass are discussed and illustrated in detail.


Oil palm shell Pyrolysis Hydrothermal liquefaction Bio-oil Petroleum oil 



  1. 1.
    Lee KT, Ofori-Boateng C (2013) Sustainability of biofuel production from oil palm biomass. SpringerGoogle Scholar
  2. 2.
    Mohammed M et al (2012) Gasification of oil palm empty fruit bunches: a characterization and kinetic study. Bioresour Technol 110:628–636CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  3. 3.
    Novianti S et al (2014) Upgrading of palm oil empty fruit bunch employing hydrothermal treatment in lab-scale and pilot scale. Procedia Environ Sci 20:46–54CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  4. 4.
    Mazaheri H et al (2010) Sub/supercritical liquefaction of oil palm fruit press fiber for the production of bio-oil: effect of solvents. Bioresour Technol 101(19):7641–7647CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  5. 5.
    Mazaheri H et al (2010) Subcritical water liquefaction of oil palm fruit press fiber for the production of bio-oil: effect of catalysts. Bioresour Technol 101(2):745–751CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  6. 6.
    Chew TL, Bhatia S (2008) Catalytic processes towards the production of biofuels in a palm oil and oil palm biomass-based biorefinery. Bioresour Technol 99(17):7911–7922CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  7. 7.
    Abnisa F et al (2011) Utilization possibilities of palm shell as a source of biomass energy in Malaysia by producing bio-oil in pyrolysis process. Biomass Bioenergy 35(5):1863–1872CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  8. 8.
    Arami-Niya A et al (2011) Optimization of synthesis and characterization of palm shell-based bio-char as a by-product of bio-oil production process. BioResources 7(1):0246–0264Google Scholar
  9. 9.
    Nizamuddin S et al (2016) A critical analysis on palm kernel shell from oil palm industry as a feedstock for solid char production. Rev Chem EngGoogle Scholar
  10. 10.
    Nizamuddin S et al (2015) Synthesis and characterization of hydrochars produced by hydrothermal carbonization of oil palm shell. Can J Chem Eng 93(11):1916–1921CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  11. 11.
    Nizamuddin S et al Chemical, dielectric and structural characterization of optimized hydrochar produced from hydrothermal carbonization of palm shell. FuelGoogle Scholar
  12. 12.
    Kean CW, Sahu JN, Daud WW (2013) Hydrothermal gasification of palm shell biomass for synthesis of hydrogen fuel. BioResources 8(2):1831–1840CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  13. 13.
    Abnisa F, Daud WW, Sahu J (2011) Optimization and characterization studies on bio-oil production from palm shell by pyrolysis using response surface methodology. Biomass Bioenergy 35(8):3604–3616CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  14. 14.
    Tripathi M et al (2015) Effect of temperature on dielectric properties and penetration depth of oil palm shell (OPS) and OPS char synthesized by microwave pyrolysis of OPS. Fuel 153:257–266CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  15. 15.
    Sabzoi N, Yong EK, Jayakumar NS, Sahu JN, Ganesan P, Mubarak NM, Mazari S (2015) An optimisation study for catalytic hyfrolysis of oil palm shell using response surface methodology. J Oil Palm Res 47(4):339–351Google Scholar
  16. 16.
    Bridgwater AV (2003) Renewable fuels and chemicals by thermal processing of biomass. Chem Eng J 91(2–3):87–102CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  17. 17.
    Amen-Chen C, Pakdel H, Roy C (2001) Production of monomeric phenols by thermochemical conversion of biomass: a review. Bioresour Technol 79(3):277–299CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  18. 18.
    McKendry P (2002) Energy production from biomass (part 2): conversion technologies. Bioresour Technol 83(1):47–54CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  19. 19.
    Savage PE et al (1995) Reactions at supercritical conditions: applications and fundamentals. AICHE J 41(7):1723–1778CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  20. 20.
    Naik S et al (2010) Production of first and second generation biofuels: a comprehensive review. Renew Sust Energ Rev 14(2):578–597CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  21. 21.
    Effendi A, Gerhauser H, Bridgwater AV (2008) Production of renewable phenolic resins by thermochemical conversion of biomass: a review. Renew Sust Energ Rev 12(8):2092–2116CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  22. 22.
    Chang SH (2014) An overview of empty fruit bunch from oil palm as feedstock for bio-oil production. Biomass Bioenergy 62:174–181CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  23. 23.
    Abnisa F et al (2013) Characterization of bio-oil and bio-char from pyrolysis of palm oil wastes. BioEnergy Res 6(2):830–840CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  24. 24.
    Asadullah M et al (2013) Production and detailed characterization of bio-oil from fast pyrolysis of palm kernel shell. Biomass Bioenergy 59:316–324CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  25. 25.
    Yang H et al (2006) Pyrolysis of palm oil wastes for enhanced production of hydrogen rich gases. Fuel Process Technol 87(10):935–942CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  26. 26.
    Chan YH et al (2014) Bio-oil production from oil palm biomass via subcritical and supercritical hydrothermal liquefaction. J Supercrit Fluids 95:407–412CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  27. 27.
    Idris SS et al (2010) Investigation on thermochemical behaviour of low rank Malaysian coal, oil palm biomass and their blends during pyrolysis via thermogravimetric analysis (TGA). Bioresour Technol 101(12):4584–4592CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  28. 28.
    Abubakar Z, Ani FN (2013) Microwave-assisted pyrolysis of oil palm shell biomass. Jurnal Mekanikal 36:19–30Google Scholar
  29. 29.
    Jamaluddin MA et al (2013) Microwave-assisted pyrolysis of palm kernel shell: optimization using response surface methodology (RSM). Renew Energy 55:357–365CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  30. 30.
    Hashim R et al (2011) Characterization of raw materials and manufactured binderless particleboard from oil palm biomass. Mater Des 32(1):246–254CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  31. 31.
    Hesas RH et al (2013) Preparation of granular activated carbon from oil palm shell by microwave-induced chemical activation: optimisation using surface response methodology. Chem Eng Res Des 91(12):2447–2456CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  32. 32.
    Mae K et al (2000) A new conversion method for recovering valuable chemicals from oil palm shell wastes utilizing liquid-phase oxidation with H2O2 under mild conditions. Energy Fuel 14(6):1212–1218CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  33. 33.
    Kelly-Yong TL et al (2007) Potential of hydrogen from oil palm biomass as a source of renewable energy worldwide. Energy Policy 35(11):5692–5701CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  34. 34.
    Mazaheri H, Lee KT, Mohamed AR (2013) Influence of temperature on liquid products yield of oil palm shell via subcritical water liquefaction in the presence of alkali catalyst. Fuel Process Technol 110:197–205CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  35. 35.
    Aziz SMA et al (2013) Bio-oils from microwave pyrolysis of agricultural wastes. Fuel Process Technol 106:744–750CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  36. 36.
    Mushtaq F et al (2015) Optimization and characterization of bio-oil produced by microwave assisted pyrolysis of oil palm shell waste biomass with microwave absorber. Bioresour Technol 190:442–450CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  37. 37.
    Abubakar Z, Salema AA, Ani FN (2013) A new technique to pyrolyse biomass in a microwave system: effect of stirrer speed. Bioresour Technol 128:578–585CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  38. 38.
    Claoston N et al (2014) Effects of pyrolysis temperature on the physicochemical properties of empty fruit bunch and rice husk biochars. Waste Manag Res 32(4):331–339CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  39. 39.
    Sidik DAB, Ngadi N, Amin NAS (2013) Optimization of lignin production from empty fruit bunch via liquefaction with ionic liquid. Bioresour Technol 135:690–696CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  40. 40.
    Parshetti GK, Hoekman SK, Balasubramanian R (2013) Chemical, structural and combustion characteristics of carbonaceous products obtained by hydrothermal carbonization of palm empty fruit bunches. Bioresour Technol 135:683–689CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  41. 41.
    Abdullah N, Gerhauser H (2008) Bio-oil derived from empty fruit bunches. Fuel 87(12):2606–2613CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  42. 42.
    Kongpanya J, Hussaro K, Teekasap S (2014) Influence of reaction temperature and reaction time on product from hydrothermal treatment of biomass residue. Am J Environ Sci 10(4):324CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  43. 43.
    Pua FL et al (2013) Solvolytic liquefaction of oil palm empty fruit bunch (EFB) fibres: analysis of product fractions using FTIR and pyrolysis-GCMS. Sains Malays 42(6):79Google Scholar
  44. 44.
    Chin K et al (2013) Optimization of torrefaction conditions for high energy density solid biofuel from oil palm biomass and fast growing species available in Malaysia. Ind Crop Prod 49:768–774CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  45. 45.
    Sreekala M, Kumaran M, Thomas S (1997) Oil palm fibers: morphology, chemical composition, surface modification, and mechanical properties. J Appl Polym Sci 66(5):821–835CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  46. 46.
    Abnisa F et al (2013) Utilization of oil palm tree residues to produce bio-oil and bio-char via pyrolysis. Energy Convers Manag 76:1073–1082CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  47. 47.
    Yuliansyah AT et al (2010) Production of solid biofuel from agricultural wastes of the palm oil industry by hydrothermal treatment. Waste Biomass Valorization 1(4):395–405CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  48. 48.
    Geng A (2014) Upgrading of oil palm biomass to value-added products, in Biomass and Bioenergy. Springer, pp 187–209Google Scholar
  49. 49.
    Varman M, Saka S (2011) A comparative study of oil palm and Japanese beech on their fractionation and characterization as treated by supercritical water. Waste Biomass Valorization 2(3):309–315CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  50. 50.
    Ang S et al (2013) Production of cellulases and xylanase by Aspergillus fumigatus SK1 using untreated oil palm trunk through solid state fermentation. Process Biochem 48(9):1293–1302CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  51. 51.
    Fan S-P et al (2011) Comparative studies of products obtained from solvolysis liquefaction of oil palm empty fruit bunch fibres using different solvents. Bioresour Technol 102(3):3521–3526CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  52. 52.
    Hossain MA et al (2016) Microwave pyrolysis of oil palm fiber (OPF) for hydrogen production: parametric investigation. Energy Convers Manag 115:232–243CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  53. 53.
    Ngo T-A, Kim J, Kim S-S (2014) Characteristics of palm bark pyrolysis experiment oriented by central composite rotatable design. Energy 66:7–12CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  54. 54.
    Lathouwers D, Bellan J (2001) Yield optimization and scaling of fluidized beds for tar production from biomass. Energy Fuel 15(5):1247–1262CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  55. 55.
    Cho J, Davis JM, Huber GW (2010) The intrinsic kinetics and heats of reactions for cellulose pyrolysis and char formation. ChemSusChem 3(10):1162–1165CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  56. 56.
    Lin Y-C et al (2009) Kinetics and mechanism of cellulose pyrolysis. J Phys Chem C 113(46):20097–20107CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  57. 57.
    Mohan D, Pittman CU, Steele PH (2006) Pyrolysis of wood/biomass for bio-oil: a critical review. Energy Fuel 20(3):848–889CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  58. 58.
    Khan A et al (2009) Biomass combustion in fluidized bed boilers: potential problems and remedies. Fuel Process Technol 90(1):21–50MathSciNetCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  59. 59.
    Lewandowski I, Heinz A (2003) Delayed harvest of miscanthus—influences on biomass quantity and quality and environmental impacts of energy production. Eur J Agron 19(1):45–63CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  60. 60.
    Pordesimo L et al (2005) Variation in corn Stover composition and energy content with crop maturity. Biomass Bioenergy 28(4):366–374CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  61. 61.
    Christian DG, Yates NE, Riche AB (2006) The effect of harvest date on the yield and mineral content of Phalaris arundinacea L.(reed canary grass) genotypes screened for their potential as energy crops in southern England. J Sci Food Agric 86(8):1181–1188CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  62. 62.
    Omar R et al (2011) Characterization of empty fruit bunch for microwave-assisted pyrolysis. Fuel 90(4):1536–1544CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  63. 63.
    Guldogan Y, Bozdemir TO, Durusoy T (2000) Effect of heating rate on pyrolysis kinetics of Tuncbilek lignite. Energy Sources 22(4):305–312CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  64. 64.
    Oasmaa A, Czernik S (1999) Fuel oil quality of biomass pyrolysis oils state of the art for the end users. Energy Fuel 13(4):914–921CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  65. 65.
    Venderbosch R, Prins W (2010) Fast pyrolysis technology development. Biofuels Bioprod Biorefin 4(2):178–208CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  66. 66.
    Sevilla M, Maciá-Agulló JA, Fuertes AB (2011) Hydrothermal carbonization of biomass as a route for the sequestration of CO 2: chemical and structural properties of the carbonized products. Biomass Bioenergy 35(7):3152–3159CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  67. 67.
    Nizamuddin S et al (2015) Hydrothermal carbonization of oil palm shell. Korean J Chem Eng:1–9Google Scholar
  68. 68.
    Jacobson K, Maheria KC, Kumar Dalai A (2013) Bio-oil valorization: a review. Renew Sust Energ Rev 23:91–106CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  69. 69.
    Telmo C, Lousada J (2011) Heating values of wood pellets from different species. Biomass Bioenergy 35(7):2634–2639CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  70. 70.
    Garcia-Perez M et al (2007) Vacuum pyrolysis of softwood and hardwood biomass: comparison between product yields and bio-oil properties. J Anal Appl Pyrolysis 78(1):104–116CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  71. 71.
    Loh SK (2017) The potential of the Malaysian oil palm biomass as a renewable energy source. Energy Convers Manag 141:285–298CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  72. 72.
    Pramanik K (2003) Properties and use of Jatropha curcas oil and diesel fuel blends in compression ignition engine. Renew Energy 28(2):239–248CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  73. 73.
    Akhtar J, Saidina Amin N (2012) A review on operating parameters for optimum liquid oil yield in biomass pyrolysis. Renew Sust Energ Rev 16(7):5101–5109CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  74. 74.
    Basagiannis A, Verykios X (2006) Reforming reactions of acetic acid on nickel catalysts over a wide temperature range. Appl Catal A Gen 308:182–193CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  75. 75.
    Horne PA, Williams PT (1996) Influence of temperature on the products from the flash pyrolysis of biomass. Fuel 75(9):1051–1059CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  76. 76.
    Stehlik P (2012) Up-to-date technologies in waste to energy field. Rev Chem Eng 28(4–6):223–242Google Scholar
  77. 77.
    Frassoldati A et al (2006) Detailed kinetic modeling of thermal degradation of biomasses. In: Proceeding of the 29th meeting on combustionGoogle Scholar
  78. 78.
    Goyal H, Seal D, Saxena R (2008) Bio-fuels from thermochemical conversion of renewable resources: a review. Renew Sust Energ Rev 12(2):504–517CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  79. 79.
    Harris K et al (2013) Characterization and mineralization rates of low temperature peanut hull and pine chip biochars. Agronomy 3(2):294–312CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  80. 80.
    Bridgwater A, Czernik S, Piskorz J (2001) An overview of fast pyrolysis. In: Progress in thermochemical biomass conversion, pp 977–997CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  81. 81.
    Demirbas A (2000) Recent advances in biomass conversion technologies. Energy Educ Sci Technol 6:19–41Google Scholar
  82. 82.
    Guillain M et al (2009) Attrition-free pyrolysis to produce bio-oil and char. Bioresour Technol 100(23):6069–6075CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  83. 83.
    Jahirul MI et al (2012) Biofuels production through biomass pyrolysis—a technological review. Energies 5(12):4952–5001CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  84. 84.
    Demirbas A, Arin G (2002) An overview of biomass pyrolysis. Energy Sources 24(5):471–482CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  85. 85.
    Tsai W, Lee M, Chang Y (2006) Fast pyrolysis of rice straw, sugarcane bagasse and coconut shell in an induction-heating reactor. J Anal Appl Pyrolysis 76(1–2):230–237CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  86. 86.
    Kebelmann K et al (2013) Intermediate pyrolysis and product identification by TGA and Py-GC/MS of green microalgae and their extracted protein and lipid components. Biomass Bioenergy 49:38–48CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  87. 87.
    Yang Y et al (2014) Intermediate pyrolysis of biomass energy pellets for producing sustainable liquid, gaseous and solid fuels. Bioresour Technol 169:794–799CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  88. 88.
    Roy C, Labrecque B, de Caumia B (1990) Recycling of scrap tires to oil and carbon black by vacuum pyrolysis. Resour Conserv Recycl 4(3):203–213CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  89. 89.
    Pakdel H, Pantea DM, Roy C (2001) Production of dl-limonene by vacuum pyrolysis of used tires. J Anal Appl Pyrolysis 57(1):91–107CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  90. 90.
    Sınaǧ A, Kruse A, Schwarzkopf V (2003) Key compounds of the hydropyrolysis of glucose in supercritical water in the presence of K2CO3. Ind Eng Chem Res 42(15):3516–3521CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  91. 91.
    Tripathi M, Sahu JN, Ganesan P (2016) Effect of process parameters on production of biochar from biomass waste through pyrolysis: a review. Renew Sust Energ Rev 55:467–481CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  92. 92.
    Silitonga A et al (2011) A review on prospect of Jatropha curcas for biodiesel in Indonesia. Renew Sust Energ Rev 15(8):3733–3756CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  93. 93.
    Enweremadu C, Mbarawa M (2009) Technical aspects of production and analysis of biodiesel from used cooking oil—a review. Renew Sust Energ Rev 13(9):2205–2224CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  94. 94.
    Santos RB et al (2013) Wood based lignin reactions important to the biorefinery and pulp and paper industries. BioResources 8(1):1456–1477CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  95. 95.
    Demirbas A (2004) Effects of temperature and particle size on bio-char yield from pyrolysis of agricultural residues. J Anal Appl Pyrolysis 72(2):243–248CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  96. 96.
    Janse A, Westerhout R, Prins W (2000) Modelling of flash pyrolysis of a single wood particle. Chem Eng Process Process Intensif 39(3):239–252CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  97. 97.
    Demirbas A (2004) Effect of initial moisture content on the yields of oily products from pyrolysis of biomass. J Anal Appl Pyrolysis 71(2):803–815CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  98. 98.
    Beneroso D et al (2016) Dielectric characterization of biodegradable wastes during pyrolysis. Fuel 172:146–152CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  99. 99.
    Encinar J et al (1996) Pyrolysis of two agricultural residues: olive and grape bagasse. Influence of particle size and temperature. Biomass Bioenergy 11(5):397–409CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  100. 100.
    Park HJ, Park Y-K, Kim JS (2008) Influence of reaction conditions and the char separation system on the production of bio-oil from radiata pine sawdust by fast pyrolysis. Fuel Process Technol 89(8):797–802CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  101. 101.
    Mani T et al (2010) Pyrolysis of wheat straw in a thermogravimetric analyzer: effect of particle size and heating rate on devolatilization and estimation of global kinetics. Chem Eng Res Des 88(8):952–958CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  102. 102.
    Di Blasi C, Branca C (2003) Temperatures of wood particles in a hot sand bed fluidized by nitrogen. Energy Fuel 17(1):247–254CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  103. 103.
    Grønli M, Antal MJ, Várhegyi G (1999) A round-robin study of cellulose pyrolysis kinetics by thermogravimetry. Ind Eng Chem Res 38(6):2238–2244CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  104. 104.
    Şensöz S, Kaynar İ (2006) Bio-oil production from soybean (Glycine max L.); fuel properties of bio-oil. Ind Crop Prod 23(1):99–105CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  105. 105.
    Pütün A, Özcan A, Pütün E (1999) Pyrolysis of hazelnut shells in a fixed-bed tubular reactor: yields and structural analysis of bio-oil. J Anal Appl Pyrolysis 52(1):33–49CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  106. 106.
    Antal MJ Jr et al (1990) Review of methods for improving the yield of charcoal from biomass. Energy Fuel 4(3):221–225CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  107. 107.
    Antal MJ et al (2000) Attainment of the theoretical yield of carbon from biomass. Ind Eng Chem Res 39(11):4024–4031CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  108. 108.
    Richard J-R, Antal MJ Jr (1993) Thermogravimetric studies of charcoal formation from cellulose at elevated pressures. In: Advances in thermochemical biomass conversion. Springer, pp 784–792Google Scholar
  109. 109.
    Wang L et al (2011) Is elevated pressure required to achieve a high fixed-carbon yield of charcoal from biomass? Part 1: round-robin results for three different corncob materials. Energy Fuel 25(7):3251–3265CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  110. 110.
    Zhang H et al (2009) Comparison of non-catalytic and catalytic fast pyrolysis of corncob in a fluidized bed reactor. Bioresour Technol 100(3):1428–1434CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  111. 111.
    Heidari A et al (2014) Effect of process conditions on product yield and composition of fast pyrolysis of Eucalyptus grandis in fluidized bed reactor. J Ind Eng Chem 20(4):2594–2602CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  112. 112.
    Anca-Couce A (2016) Reaction mechanisms and multi-scale modelling of lignocellulosic biomass pyrolysis. Prog Energy Combust Sci 53:41–79CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  113. 113.
    Behrendt F et al (2008) Direct liquefaction of biomass. Chem Eng Technol 31(5):667–677CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  114. 114.
    Mäkelä M, Benavente V, Fullana A (2015) Hydrothermal carbonization of lignocellulosic biomass: effect of process conditions on hydrochar properties. Appl Energy 155:576–584CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  115. 115.
    Kruse A, Funke A, Titirici M-M (2013) Hydrothermal conversion of biomass to fuels and energetic materials. Curr Opin Chem Biol 17(3):515–521CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  116. 116.
    Tekin K, Karagöz S, Bektaş S (2014) A review of hydrothermal biomass processing. Renew Sust Energ Rev 40:673–687CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  117. 117.
    Bardhan SK et al (2015) Biorenewable chemicals: feedstocks, technologies and the conflict with food production. Renew Sust Energ Rev 51:506–520CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  118. 118.
    Awalludin MF et al (2015) An overview of the oil palm industry in Malaysia and its waste utilization through thermochemical conversion, specifically via liquefaction. Renew Sust Energ Rev 50:1469–1484CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  119. 119.
    Jena U, Das K (2011) Comparative evaluation of thermochemical liquefaction and pyrolysis for bio-oil production from microalgae. Energy Fuel 25(11):5472–5482CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  120. 120.
    Gollakota A, Kishore N, Gu S (2017) A review on hydrothermal liquefaction of biomass. Renew Sust Energ RevGoogle Scholar
  121. 121.
    Nizamuddin S et al (2016) A critical analysis on palm kernel shell from oil palm industry as a feedstock for solid char production. Rev Chem Eng 32(5):489–505CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  122. 122.
    Kim SW et al (2013) Bio-oil from the pyrolysis of palm and Jatropha wastes in a fluidized bed. Fuel Process Technol 108:118–124CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  123. 123.
    Kim S-J, Jung S-H, Kim J-S (2010) Fast pyrolysis of palm kernel shells: influence of operation parameters on the bio-oil yield and the yield of phenol and phenolic compounds. Bioresour Technol 101(23):9294–9300CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  124. 124.
    Islam MN, Zailani R, Ani FN (1999) Pyrolytic oil from fluidised bed pyrolysis of oil palm shell and itscharacterisation. Renew Energy 17(1):73–84CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  125. 125.
    Omoriyekomwan JE, Tahmasebi A, Yu J (2016) Production of phenol-rich bio-oil during catalytic fixed-bed and microwave pyrolysis of palm kernel shell. Bioresour Technol 207:188–196CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  126. 126.
    Abdullah N, Sulaiman F, Gerhauser H (2011) Characterisation of oil palm empty fruit bunches for fuel application. J Phys Sci 22(1):1–24Google Scholar
  127. 127.
    Abdullah N, Gerhauser H, Sulaiman F (2010) Fast pyrolysis of empty fruit bunches. Fuel 89(8):2166–2169CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  128. 128.
    Sukiran MA, Chin CM, Bakar NK (2009) Bio-oils from pyrolysis of oil palm empty fruit bunches. Am J Appl Sci 6(5):869–875CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  129. 129.
    Pimenidou P, Dupont V (2012) Characterisation of palm empty fruit bunch (PEFB) and pinewood bio-oils and kinetics of their thermal degradation. Bioresour Technol 109:198–205CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  130. 130.
    Khor K, Lim K, Zainal Z (2009) Characterization of bio-oil: a by-product from slow pyrolysis of oil palm empty fruit bunches. Am J Appl Sci 6(9):1647–1652CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  131. 131.
    Misson M et al (2009) Pretreatment of empty palm fruit bunch for production of chemicals via catalytic pyrolysis. Bioresour Technol 100(11):2867–2873CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  132. 132.
    Fukuda S (2015) Pyrolysis investigation for bio-oil production from various biomass feedstocks in Thailand. Int J Green Energy 12(3):215–224CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  133. 133.
    Lua AC, Guo J (1998) Preparation and characterization of chars from oil palm waste. Carbon 36(11):1663–1670CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  134. 134.
    Chiaramonti D, Oasmaa A, Solantausta Y (2007) Power generation using fast pyrolysis liquids from biomass. Renew Sust Energ Rev 11(6):1056–1086CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  135. 135.
    Mahfud F et al (2007) Biomass to fuels: upgrading of flash pyrolysis oil by reactive distillation using a high boiling alcohol and acid catalysts. Process Saf Environ Prot 85(5):466–472CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  136. 136.
    Yaman S (2004) Pyrolysis of biomass to produce fuels and chemical feedstocks. Energy Convers Manag 45(5):651–671CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  137. 137.
    Kim SW, Koo BS, Lee DH (2014) Catalytic pyrolysis of palm kernel shell waste in a fluidized bed. Bioresour Technol 167:425–432CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  138. 138.
    Ahmad MI, Zhang N, Jobson M (2011) Integrated design of diesel hydrotreating processes. Chem Eng Res Des 89(7):1025–1036CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  139. 139.
    Ostgard D et al (2007) The chemoselective hydrogenation of tallow nitriles to unsaturated 1° fatty amines with carbon modified Ni catalysts. Catal Today 121(1–2):106–114CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  140. 140.
    Mekki-Berrada A et al (2013) Fatty acid methyl esters into nitriles: acid–base properties for enhanced catalysts. J Catal 306:30–37CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  141. 141.
    Bridgwater A (1994) Catalysis in thermal biomass conversion. Appl Catal A Gen 116(1–2):5–47CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  142. 142.
    Williams PT, Nugranad N (2000) Comparison of products from the pyrolysis and catalytic pyrolysis of rice husks. Energy 25(6):493–513CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  143. 143.
    Isahak WNRW et al (2012) A review on bio-oil production from biomass by using pyrolysis method. Renew Sust Energ Rev 16(8):5910–5923CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  144. 144.
    Zhang L et al (2013) Upgrading of bio-oil from biomass fast pyrolysis in China: a review. Renew Sust Energ Rev 24:66–72CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  145. 145.
    Capunitan JA, Capareda SC (2013) Characterization and separation of corn stover bio-oil by fractional distillation. Fuel 112:60–73CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  146. 146.
    Chiew YL, Shimada S (2013) Current state and environmental impact assessment for utilizing oil palm empty fruit bunches for fuel, fiber and fertilizer–a case study of Malaysia. Biomass Bioenergy 51:109–124CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  147. 147.
    Ng WPQ et al (2012) Waste-to-wealth: green potential from palm biomass in Malaysia. J Clean Prod 34:57–65CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  148. 148.
    Xiu S, Shahbazi A (2012) Bio-oil production and upgrading research: a review. Renew Sust Energ Rev 16(7):4406–4414CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  149. 149.
    Mortensen PM et al (2011) A review of catalytic upgrading of bio-oil to engine fuels. Appl Catal A Gen 407(1–2):1–19CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  150. 150.
    Feili H et al (2016) Prioritization of renewable energy systems using AHP method with economic analysis perspective in Iran. In: 2nd international conference on modern Researchs in management, economics and accounting, KualalampurGoogle Scholar
  151. 151.
    Lim M (2010) A case study on palm empty fruit bunch as energy feedstock. SEGi Rev 3(2):3–15Google Scholar
  152. 152.
    Yuosoff S, Kardooni R (2012) Barriers and challenges for developing RE policy in Malaysia. In: International conference on future environment and energy IPCBEEGoogle Scholar
  153. 153.
    Loh SK, Choo YM (2013) Prospect, challenges and opportunities on biofuels in Malaysia. In: Advances in biofuels. Springer, pp 3–14Google Scholar
  154. 154.
    Kong S-H et al (2014) Biochar from oil palm biomass: a review of its potential and challenges. Renew Sust Energ Rev 39:729–739CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  155. 155.
    Mohammed M et al (2011) Hydrogen rich gas from oil palm biomass as a potential source of renewable energy in Malaysia. Renew Sust Energ Rev 15(2):1258–1270CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  156. 156.
    Lu Q, Li W-Z, Zhu X-F (2009) Overview of fuel properties of biomass fast pyrolysis oils. Energy Convers Manag 50(5):1376–1383CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  157. 157.
    Thomsen T et al (2011) The potential of pyrolysis technology in climate change mitigation–influence of process design and–parameters, simulated in SuperPro designer softwareGoogle Scholar
  158. 158.
    Sulaiman F et al (2011) An outlook of Malaysian energy, oil palm industry and its utilization of wastes as useful resources. Biomass Bioenergy 35(9):3775–3786Google Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer-Verlag GmbH Germany, part of Springer Nature 2019

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Institute of Environmental Engineering & ManagementMehran University of Engineering and TechnologyJamshoroPakistan
  2. 2.School of EngineeringRMIT UniversityMelbourneAustralia
  3. 3.Department of Chemical Engineering, Faculty of Engineering and ScienceCurtin UniversityMiriMalaysia

Personalised recommendations