Kinetic modelling and techno-economic analysis of biodiesel production from Calophyllum inophyllum oil

  • A. ArumugamEmail author
  • K. Gopinath
  • P. Anuse
  • B. Shwetha
  • V. Ponnusami
Original Article


Calophyllum inophyllum oil, a non-edible renewable resource, was used for the production of biodiesel. In the present study, kinetic analysis was done for the biodiesel production from C. inophyllum oil using alkali and enzymatic method, a non-edible renewable resource with methanol to identify the rate equation and estimate model kinetic parameters. The present model was validated, and the experimental and predicted values were compared. The first-order rate equation represents an alkali transesterification reaction’s kinetic mathematical model under chosen experimental conditions for the estimated parameters. The enzymatic transesterification was carried out at 500 rpm for 8 h in room temperature produced a yield of 97% of FAME (fatty acid methyl ester) for the reaction with 6:1 methanol to oil in molar ratio. The sequential cleavage of fatty acid and reaction with methanol by the enzyme were assumptions used in developing the kinetic model. The transesterification of C. inophyllum oil was simulated with Aspen Plus (V 8.6, Aspen Tech., Inc.). The simulation and economically viable estimation for the comparison of a ceaseless biodiesel production from C. inophyllum oil are formed on the basis of the kinetics of chemical transesterification (base-catalyzed methanolysis) and enzymatic transesterification reactions. The base-catalyzed transesterification requires nearly seven times higher than the enzymatic transesterification Also, the simulation demonstrated that the base-catalyzed transesterification required additional number of process equipment units when related to the enzymatic process.

Graphical abstract


Biodiesel Kinetic model Transesterification Calophyllum inophyllum oil Lipase SBA-15 



free fatty acid (mg of KOH/g of oil)




free fatty acid yield %


free fatty acid yield at an initial time (%)


free fatty acid yield at given time (%)


initial concentration of lipase in the buffer solution (mg/L)


concentration of lipase remaining in solution at time “t” (mg/L)


rate constant of the pseudo-first-order adsorption process (min−1)


rate constant for alkali catalyst first-order reaction (min−1)


enzyme (g/L)


methanol (g/L)


glycerol (g/L)


reactant triglyceride (g/L)


activated form of the enzyme and the triglyceride (g/L)


deactivated form of the enzyme and the methanol (g/L)

E.G(1,2) and E.G(1,3)

reactant diglyceride (g/L)


reactant monoglyceride (g/L)


activated form of the enzyme and glycerol (g/L)

Me1, Me2, Me3

fatty acid methyl ester (g/L)


total enzyme concentration (kg/m3)


rate of production of methyl ester (kg/m3 s)


activation energy (J/mol)


gas constant (J/mol K)


pre-exponential factor


Funding information

This study is financially supported by SERB (Science & Engineering Research Board), India (Grant No. ECR/2017/001038/2017-2018) to carry out this research work.


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Copyright information

© Springer-Verlag GmbH Germany, part of Springer Nature 2019

Authors and Affiliations

  • A. Arumugam
    • 1
    Email author
  • K. Gopinath
    • 1
  • P. Anuse
    • 1
  • B. Shwetha
    • 1
  • V. Ponnusami
    • 1
  1. 1.Biomass Conversion and Bioproducts Laboratory, School of Chemical & BiotechnologySASTRA Deemed UniversityThanjavurIndia

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