Photoacoustic spectroscopy for detection of N2O emitted from combustion of diesel/beef tallow biodiesel/sugarcane diesel and diesel/beef tallow biodiesel blends
- 28 Downloads
Nitrous oxide (N2O) is an important greenhouse gas. Emissions of this gas are generated by the combustion of fossil fuels, mainly in the transportation sector worldwide. Biofuel is a promising alternative instead of diesel considering that it allows a reduction on the emissions of polluting gases. In Brazil, there is a large program on the use of biofuels, which according to the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC) reduces greenhouse gas emissions. This work shows the N2O emissions resulting from combustions of diesel/beef tallow biodiesel blends of B7, B15, B20, B25, B35, and B50. In parallel, another experiment was done with fuel sample adopted by a bus fleet from São Paulo using blends comprising 10% of sugarcane diesel in diesel (CD10) and blends with beef tallow biodiesel of CD10: CD-B15, CD-B20, CD-B25, CD-B35, and CD-B50. The photoacoustic spectroscopy technique coupled to a quantum cascade laser (QCL) was used to detect N2O. Concentrations of the emissions were detected in the range of 5.3 to 7.4 ppmv for diesel/beef tallow biodiesel blends combustion and in the range of 4.3 to 11.0 ppmv for diesel/sugar cane diesel/beef tallow biodiesel blends combustion. The technique used was very sensitive and selective to identify and determine the emission concentrations of N2O.
KeywordsPhotoacoustic spectroscopy Sugarcane diesel Biodiesel Nitrous oxide
We also thank the Distribution Base of Petrobras of Barueri-SP for supplying the CD10/blends diesel farnesano and the Company Minerva S. A for supplying the bovine tallow biodiesel by the granted samples.
This study was financially supported by the Brazilian agencies of the Foundation for Research Support of the State of Rio de Janeiro (FAPERJ), National Council for Scientific and Technological Development (CNPq), and Coordination of Improvement of Higher Education Personal (CAPES).
- 4.International Energy Agency (2016) Energy and Air Pollution, World Energy Outlook - Spec Rep 266. https://doi.org/10.1021/ac00256a010
- 5.European Environment Agency (EEA) (2015) The European Environment: State and Outlook 2015: Synthesis. Eur Environ 42. https://doi.org/10.2800/45773
- 6.United States Environmental Protection Agency (2016) Global Greenhouse Gas Emissions Data, United States Environ Prot Agency. https://www.epa.gov/ghgemissions/global-greenhouse-gas-emissions-data. Accessed 15 June 2018
- 7.European Commission (2016) EU Reference Scenario 2016: energy, transport and GHG emissions trends to 2050. https://doi.org/10.2833/9127.
- 10.Rosenzweig C, Karoly D, Vicarelli M, Neofotis P, Wu Q, Casassa G, Menzel A, Root TL, Estrella N, Seguin B, Tryjanowski P, Liu C, Rawlins S, Imeson A (2008) Attributing physical and biological impacts to anthropogenic climate change. Nature 453:353–357. https://doi.org/10.1038/nature06937 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
- 13.Pacifici M, Foden WB, Visconti P, Watson JEM, Butchart SHM, Kovacs KM, Scheffers BR, Hole DG, Martin TG, Akçakaya HR, Corlett RT, Huntley B, Bickford D, Carr JA, Hoffmann AA, Midgley GF, P P-K, Pearson RG, Williams SE, Willis SG, Young B, Rondinini C (2015) Assessing species vulnerability to climate change. Nat Clim Chang 5:215–225. https://doi.org/10.1038/nclimate2448. CrossRefGoogle Scholar
- 18.US EPA, US Environmental Protection Agency, US Environ. Prot Agency (2016).Google Scholar
- 19.Environmental Protection Agency (2015) Light-duty automotive technology, carbon dioxide emissions, and fuel economy trends: 1975 through 2015. Fuel Econ Trends Rep:1–155Google Scholar
- 22.Hartmann DL, Tank AMGK, Rusticucci M (2013) IPCC fifth assessment report, climatie change 2013: the physical science basis, Ipcc. AR5, 31–39. https://doi.org/10.1017/CBO9781107415324
- 23.BE Nacional (2015) Balanço Energético Nacional 2015:Ano Base 2014, Empresa Pesquisa Energética - EPE 291Google Scholar
- 24.UNFCCC (2015) Conference of the Parties (COP), Paris Climate Change Conference-November 2015, COP 21Google Scholar
- 26.Natural Gas and Biofuels Agency (ANP) (n.d.) Law 11.097, 2004. www.anp.gov.br. Accessed 19 Nov 2016. http://www.anp.gov.br/wwwanp/movimentacao-estocagem-e-comercializacao-de-gas-natural/transporte-de-gas-natural/acesso-a-gasodutos/766-producao-de-biocombustiveis-3
- 27.Ministry of Mines and Energy (MME). http://www.mme.gov.br/. Acessed 22 June 2018
- 30.Perez VH, Silveira Junior EG, Cubides DC, David GF, Justo OR, Castro MPP, Sthel MS, De Castro HF (2014) Trends in biodiesel production: present status and future directions. https://doi.org/10.1007/978-3-319-05020-1_13
- 31.ANP (2018) ‘Natural Gas and Biofuels Agency’, Retrieved. Available at: http://www.anp.gov.br/. Acessed 5 Jul 2018
- 32.de Oliveira M (2008) Diesel de Cana. Pesqui Fapesp 153:88–91. http://revistapesquisa.fapesp.br/wp-content/uploads/2008/11/90_911.pdf. Accessed 20 July 2018
- 33.Millo F, Bensaid S, Fino D, Marcano SJC, Vlachos T, Debnath BK (2014) Influence on the performance and emissions of an automotive Euro 5 diesel engine fueled with F30 from Farnesane. Fuel:134–142. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.fuel.2014.07.060
- 34.Rocha AM, Sthel MS, De Castro MPP, Mothé GA, Silva WC, Perez VH, Da Silva MG, Miklós A, Vargas H (2014) Evaluation of nitrous oxide emitted from diesel/biodiesel blends during combustion in a diesel engine at laboratory scale by a photoacoustic spectroscopy technique. Energy Fuel 28:4028–4032. https://doi.org/10.1021/ef500294a CrossRefGoogle Scholar
- 35.Couto FM, Sthel MS, Castro MPP, da Silva MG, Rocha MV, Tavares JR, Veiga CFM, Vargas H (2014) Quantum cascade laser photoacoustic detection of nitrous oxide released from soils for biofuel production. Appl Phys B Lasers Opt 117:897–903. https://doi.org/10.1007/s00340-014-5906-y. CrossRefGoogle Scholar
- 36.Stefański P, Lewicki R, Sanchez NP, Tarka J, Griffin RJ, Razeghi M, Tittel FK (2014) Measurements of carbon monoxide mixing ratios in Houston using a compact high-power CW DFB-QCL-based QEPAS sensor. Appl Phys B Lasers Opt 117:519–526. https://doi.org/10.1007/s00340-014-5863-5. CrossRefGoogle Scholar
- 45.Lima GR, Mota L, Miklós A, Angster J, Dubovski Z, da Silva MG, Sthel M, Vargas H (2014) Sensitive harmonic detection of ammonia trace using a compact photoacoustic resonator at double-pass configuration and a wavelength-modulated distributed feedback diode laser. Appl Phys B Lasers Opt 117:333–341. https://doi.org/10.1007/s00340-014-5840-z. CrossRefGoogle Scholar
- 47.Knothe G, Krahl J, Van Gerpen J (2010) The biodiesel handbook: 2nd edn, . https://doi.org/10.1016/C2015-0-02453-4
- 49.Rakopoulos CD, Antonopoulos KA, Rakopoulos DC, Hountalas DT, Giakoumis EG (2006) Comparative performance and emissions study of a direct injection diesel engine using blends of diesel fuel with vegetable oils or bio-diesels of various origins. Energy Convers Manag 47:3272–3287. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.enconman.2006.01.006 CrossRefGoogle Scholar