Ethanol production from acid-pretreated and detoxified rice straw as sole renewable resource

Original Article
  • 21 Downloads

Abstract

Renewable resources are the most abundant available and inexpensive materials on the earth. This study was undertaken not only to optimize acid pretreatment conditions of rice straw but also to produce ethanol from the detoxified rice straw hydrolysate (RSH) by the yeasts Saccharomyces cerevisiae and Scheffersomyces stipitis. Box-Behnken response surface design was used to determine optimum temperature (105–135 °C), dilute sulfuric acid ratio (1–5%, w/v), and solid-to-liquid ratio (1:19–1:15, w/v). Results indicated that the optimum hydrolysis conditions of rice straw were 126.5 °C, 1:15 solid-to-liquid ratio (w/v) and 5% acid ratio (w/v). Reducing sugar concentration (RSC) was 21.50 g/L (0.323 g sugar/g biomass) under optimal conditions. After detoxification process with activated charcoal, the percentage removal of acetic acid, hydroxymethyl furfural, 2-furaldehyde, and phenolics was 2.01, 78.58, 100, and 94.67%, respectively. The catalytic efficiency of sulfuric acid was achieved to be 3.40 and 5.33 g/g in non-detoxified and detoxified RSHs, respectively. The ethanol yields and maximum production rates for S. cerevisiae and S. stipitis (ATCC 58784 and ATCC 58785) were calculated as 47.20% of theoretical ethanol yield and 0.37 g/L/h, 42.95% of theoretical ethanol yield and 0.09 g/L/h, and 48.81% of theoretical ethanol yield and 0.07 g/L/h, respectively. Consequently, rice straw can be a good substrate source for production of value-added products such as ethanol by fermentation. Besides, in the case of further improvement of fermentation media in terms of inhibitors, especially of acetic acid, better fermentation results would be obtained.

Keywords

Rice straw Pretreatment Response surface methodology Detoxification Chemical composition Ethanol fermentation 

Notes

Acknowledgements

This study was supported by the Akdeniz University Research Foundation (FBA-2016-1205).

Compliance with ethical standards

Conflict of interest

All the authors in this study mutually agree for submitting our manuscript to Biomass Conversion and Biorefinery and declare that they have no conflict of interest in the publication.

References

  1. 1.
    Limayem A, Ricke SC (2012) Lignocellulosic biomass for bioethanol production: current perspectives, potential issues and future prospects. Prog Energy Combust Sci 38(4):449–467CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  2. 2.
    Saini JK, Saini R, Tewari L (2015) Lignocellulosic agriculture wastes as biomass feedstocks for second-generation bioethanol production: concepts and recent developments. 3 Biotech 5(4):337–353CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  3. 3.
    Srivastava N, Rawat R, Singh Oberoi H, Ramteke PW (2015) A review on fuel ethanol production from lignocellulosic biomass. Int J Green Energy 12(9):949–960CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  4. 4.
  5. 5.
    Sarris D, Papanikolaou S (2016) Biotechnological production of ethanol: biochemistry, processes and technologies. Eng Life Sci 16(4):307-329Google Scholar
  6. 6.
    Menon V, Rao M (2012) Trends in bioconversion of lignocellulose: biofuels, platform chemicals & biorefinery concept. Prog Energy Combust Sci 38(4):522–550CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  7. 7.
    Abraham A, Mathew AK, Sindhu R, Pandey A, Binod P (2016) Potential of rice straw for bio-refining: an overview. Bioresour Technol 215:29–36CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  8. 8.
    FAOSTAT (2016) http://faostat3.fao.org/download/Q/QC/E, Accessed on 23 June 2016
  9. 9.
    Rodhe AV, Sateesh L, Sridevi J, Venkateswarlu B, Rao LV (2011) Enzymatic hydrolysis of sorghum straw using native cellulase produced by T. reesei NCIM 992 under solid state fermentation using rice straw. 3. Biotech 1(4):207–215Google Scholar
  10. 10.
    Chaturvedi V, Verma P (2013) An overview of key pretreatment processes employed for bioconversion of lignocellulosic biomass into biofuels and value added products. 3 Biotech 3(5):415–431CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  11. 11.
    Mussatto SI, Roberto IC (2004) Alternatives for detoxification of diluted-acid lignocellulosic hydrolyzates for use in fermentative processes: a review. Bioresour Technol 93(1):1–10CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  12. 12.
    Larsson S, Reimann A, Nilvebrant N-O, Jönsson LJ (1999) Comparison of different methods for the detoxification of lignocellulose hydrolyzates of spruce. Appl Biochem Biotechnol 77(1):91–103CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  13. 13.
    Mussatto SI, Roberto IC (2001) Hydrolysate detoxification with activated charcoal for xylitol production by Candida guilliermondii. Biotechnol Lett 23(20):1681–1684CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  14. 14.
    Huang C, Zong M-h WH, Q-p L (2009) Microbial oil production from rice straw hydrolysate by Trichosporon fermentans. Bioresour Technol 100(19):4535–4538CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  15. 15.
    Hsu T-C, Guo G-L, Chen W-H, Hwang W-S (2010) Effect of dilute acid pretreatment of rice straw on structural properties and enzymatic hydrolysis. Bioresour Technol 101(13):4907–4913CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  16. 16.
    Atiyeh H, Duvnjak Z (2003) Production of fructose and ethanol from cane molasses using Saccharomyces cerevisiae ATCC 36858. Acta Biotechnol 23(1):37–48CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  17. 17.
    Huang C-F, Lin T-H, Guo G-L, Hwang W-S (2009) Enhanced ethanol production by fermentation of rice straw hydrolysate without detoxification using a newly adapted strain of Pichia stipitis. Bioresour Technol 100(17):3914–3920CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  18. 18.
    Atiyeh HK (2003) Study of the production of fructose and ethanol from sucrose and molasses media using Saccharomyces cerevisiae ATCC 36858. University of Ottawa (Canada), OttawaGoogle Scholar
  19. 19.
    Jain RK, Ghosh D, Agrawal D, Suman SK, Pandey D, Vadde VT, Dixit AK, Adhikari DK, Dasgupta D (2015) Ethanol production from rice straw using thermotolerant Kluyveromyces sp. IIPE453. Biomass Conversion Biorefinery 5(4):331–337CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  20. 20.
    Karimi K, Kheradmandinia S, Taherzadeh MJ (2006) Conversion of rice straw to sugars by dilute-acid hydrolysis. Biomass Bioenergy 30(3):247–253CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  21. 21.
    Lee C, Zheng Y, VanderGheynst JS (2015) Effects of pretreatment conditions and post–pretreatment washing on ethanol production from dilute acid pretreated rice straw. Biosyst Eng 137:36–42CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  22. 22.
    Lin T-H, Huang C-F, Guo G-L, Hwang W-S, Huang S-L (2012) Pilot-scale ethanol production from rice straw hydrolysates using xylose-fermenting Pichia stipitis. Bioresour Technol 116:314–319CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  23. 23.
    Silva JPA, Carneiro LM, Roberto IC (2014) Assessment of advanced oxidative processes based on heterogeneous catalysis as a detoxification method of rice straw hemicellulose hydrolysate and their effect on ethanol production by Pichia stipitis. Biomass Conversion Biorefinery 4(3):225–236CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  24. 24.
    Sumphanwanich J, Leepipatpiboon N, Srinorakutara T, Akaracharanya A (2008) Evaluation of dilute-acid pretreated bagasse, corn cob and rice straw for ethanol fermentation by Saccharomyces cerevisiae. Ann Microbiol 58(2):219–225CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  25. 25.
    Zhu S, Huang W, Huang W, Wang K, Chen Q, Wu Y (2015) Pretreatment of rice straw for ethanol production by a two-step process using dilute sulfuric acid and sulfomethylation reagent. Appl Energy 154:190–196CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  26. 26.
    Ranjan A, Moholkar VS (2013) Comparative study of various pretreatment techniques for rice straw saccharification for the production of alcoholic biofuels. Fuel 112:567–571CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  27. 27.
    Germec M, Kartal FK, Bilgic M, Ilgin M, Ilhan E, Güldali H, Isci A, Turhan I (2016) Ethanol production from rice hull using Pichia stipitis and optimization of acid pretreatment and detoxification processes. Biotechnol Prog 32(4):872-882Google Scholar
  28. 28.
    Mateo S, Roberto IC, Sánchez S, Moya AJ (2013) Detoxification of hemicellulosic hydrolyzate from olive tree pruning residue. Ind Crop Prod 49:196–203CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  29. 29.
    Lee J-W, Zhu J, Scordia D, Jeffries TW (2011) Evaluation of ethanol production from corncob using Scheffersomyces (Pichia) stipitis CBS 6054 by volumetric scale-up. Appl Biochem Biotechnol 165(3–4):814–822CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  30. 30.
    Turhan I, Bialka KL, Demirci A, Karhan M (2010) Ethanol production from carob extract by using Saccharomyces cerevisiae. Bioresour Technol 101(14):5290–5296CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  31. 31.
    Zhu J, Yang J, Zhu Y, Zhang L, Yong Q, Xu Y, Li X, Yu S (2014) Cause analysis of the effects of acid-catalyzed steam-exploded corn stover prehydrolyzate on ethanol fermentation by Pichia stipitis CBS 5776. Bioprocess Biosyst Eng 37(11):2215–2222CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  32. 32.
    Germec M, Demirel F, Tas N, Ozcan A, Yilmazer C, Onuk Z, Turhan I (2017) Microwave-assisted dilute acid pretreatment of different agricultural bioresources for fermentable sugar production. Cellulose 24(10):4337–4353CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  33. 33.
    Germec M, Tarhan K, Yatmaz E, Tetik N, Karhan M, Demirci A, Turhan I (2016) Ultrasound-assisted dilute acid hydrolysis of tea processing waste for production of fermentable sugar. Biotechnol Prog 32(2):393–403CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  34. 34.
    Miller GL (1959) Use of dinitrosalicylic acid reagent for determination of reducing sugar. Anal Chem 31(3):426–428CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  35. 35.
    Singleton VL, Orthofer R, Lamuela-Raventós RM (1999) Analysis of total phenols and other oxidation substrates and antioxidants by means of folin-ciocalteu reagent. Methods Enzymol 299:152–178CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  36. 36.
    Germec M, Turhan I, Karhan M, Demirci A (2015) Ethanol production via repeated-batch fermentation from carob pod extract by using Saccharomyces cerevisiae in biofilm reactor. Fuel 161:304–311CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  37. 37.
    Germec M, Ozcan A, Yilmazer C, Tas N, Onuk Z, Demirel F, Turhan I (2017) Ethanol fermentation from microwave-assisted acid pretreated raw materials by Scheffersomyces stipitis. AgroLife Sci J 6(1):112–118Google Scholar
  38. 38.
    Shuler ML, Kargi F (2002) Bioprocess engineering. Prentice Hall, New YorkGoogle Scholar
  39. 39.
    Rodrıguez-Chong A, Ramírez JA, Garrote G, Vázquez M (2004) Hydrolysis of sugar cane bagasse using nitric acid: a kinetic assessment. J Food Eng 61(2):143–152CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  40. 40.
    Chai T, Draxler RR (2014) Root mean square error (RMSE) or mean absolute error (MAE)?—arguments against avoiding RMSE in the literature. Geosci Model Dev 7(3):1247–1250CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  41. 41.
    Roberto IC, Mussatto SI, Rodrigues RC (2003) Dilute-acid hydrolysis for optimization of xylose recovery from rice straw in a semi-pilot reactor. Ind Crop Prod 17(3):171–176CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  42. 42.
    Rehman M, Kim I, Kim KH, Han J-I (2014) Optimization of sono-assisted dilute sulfuric acid process for simultaneous pretreatment and saccharification of rice straw. Int J Environ Sci Technol 11(2):543–550CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  43. 43.
    Kim I, Lee B, Park J-Y, Choi S-A, Han J-I (2014) Effect of nitric acid on pretreatment and fermentation for enhancing ethanol production of rice straw. Carbohydr Polym 99:563–567CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  44. 44.
    Germec M, Bader NB, Turhan I (2018) Dilute acid and alkaline pretreatment of spent tea leaves to determine the potential of carbon sources. Biomass Conversion Biorefinery.  https://doi.org/10.1007/s13399-018-0301-2
  45. 45.
    Serna-Saldivar SO (2016) Cereal grains: properties, processing, and nutritional attributes. CRC Press, Boca RatonGoogle Scholar
  46. 46.
    Fonseca BG, Puentes JG, Mateo S, Sánchez S, Moya AJ, IsCao R (2013) Detoxification of rice straw and olive tree pruning hemicellulosic hydrolysates employing Saccharomyces cerevisiae and its effect on the ethanol production by Pichia stipitis. J Agric Food Chem 61(40):9658–9665CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  47. 47.
    Chen W-H, Lin T-S, Guo G-L, Huang W-S (2012) Ethanol production from rice straw hydrolysates by Pichia stipitis. Energy Procedia 14:1261–1266CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  48. 48.
    Laopaiboon P, Thani A, Leelavatcharamas V, Laopaiboon L (2010) Acid hydrolysis of sugarcane bagasse for lactic acid production. Bioresour Technol 101(3):1036–1043CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  49. 49.
    Fonseca BG, Mateo S, Moya AJ, Roberto IC (2018) Biotreatment optimization of rice straw hydrolyzates for ethanolic fermentation with Scheffersomyces stipitis. Biomass Bioenergy 112:19–28CrossRefGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer-Verlag GmbH Germany, part of Springer Nature 2018

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Department of Food EngineeringAkdeniz UniversityAntalyaTurkey

Personalised recommendations