Experimental Investigations and Prediction of Thermal Behaviour of Ferrosialate-Based Geopolymer Mortars

  • Bharath Simha Reddy Yeddula
  • S. KarthiyainiEmail author
Research Article - Civil Engineering


This paper studies the thermal behaviour of ferrosialate geopolymer mortars. This is done by monitoring various factors influencing the strength gain/loss, weight loss, enthalpy changes, physical and chemical transformations in the ferrosialate geopolymer structure using TG/DT analysis. This study proposed a novel predictive equation for estimating this parameter with the help of gene expression programming (GEP). Fly ash is used as a raw feed for sialate geopolymer, and red mud along with fly ash is used for ferrosialate geopolymer. Till 200 °C, oven-cured samples showed maximum strength results. Whereas in later stages, i.e. after exposure to 400 °C, ambient cured samples surpassed the former by 4.14%. Development of broad amorphous hump in the XRD patterns, presence of thicker geopolymer structure in the SEM images for 400 °C samples, an exothermic peak in the DTA curves at 400 °C and increment in the compressive strength up to 400 °C exposure, all pointing to a conclusion that elevated temperature-favoured ferrosialate geopolymer formation till 400 °C. After exposure to 800 °C, maximum strength loss of 68.57% and 30.3% is observed for sialate and ferrosialate samples dehydroxylation, recrystallization, and melting of unreacted particles are the reasons for diminishing the strength at elevated temperatures. An equation using GEP model (r2 = 0.913) having nine genes is proposed that can predict the residual compressive strength of ferrosialate geopolymer mortars. Though this model is for ferrosialate geopolymer, a similar technique can be easily adapted to other types of geopolymers.


Ferrosialate Prediction Geopolymer Red mud Thermal behaviour TGA 



Thermogravimetric analysis


Differential thermal analysis


28-day ambient curing


72-h oven curing


Gene expression programming


Scanning electron microscope


X-ray diffraction










Red mud


Indian standards


Molarity of NaOH solution



Authors would like to thank School of Bioscience and Engineering, VIT Vellore for giving access to SEM facility. Authors would also like to thank Hindalco, Belgaum for providing red mud.

Compliance with Ethical Standards

Conflict of interest

The authors declare that they have no conflict of interest.

Supplementary material

13369_2019_4314_MOESM1_ESM.xlsx (19 kb)
Supplementary material 1 (XLSX 18 kb)
13369_2019_4314_MOESM2_ESM.xlsx (38 kb)
Supplementary material 2 (XLSX 37 kb)


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Copyright information

© King Fahd University of Petroleum & Minerals 2020

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.School of Mechanical and Building SciencesVellore Institute of TechnologyChennaiIndia

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