Arabian Journal for Science and Engineering

, Volume 44, Issue 10, pp 8239–8248 | Cite as

Enhancement of Hot Mix Asphalt (HMA) Properties Using Waste Polymers

  • Muhammad Bilal KhurshidEmail author
  • Nadeem Anwer Qureshi
  • Arshad Hussain
  • Muhammad Jawed Iqbal
Research Article - Civil Engineering


This research presents a comparative analysis of properties and performance of hot mix asphalt (HMA) modified by various polymer-based waste materials which included low-density polyethylene (LDPE) in the form of polyethylene bags (shopping bags), high-density polyethylene (HDPE) in the form of waste plastic beverage bottles and crumb rubber (CR) from waste tires. Polymer was added to coat the aggregate (dry method) and as a modifier in bitumen (wet process). Marshall method was used for the analysis of control and modified asphalt mixes. Dry method yielded better asphalt mix properties. Optimum polymer content was determined as percentage of optimum bitumen content. Polymer-modified bitumen exhibited improved stiffness and reduced susceptibility to high-temperature effects. Polymer-modified asphalt mix is found have increased stability, rutting resistance and load bearing capacity in comparison with unmodified asphalt mix. In overall comparison, HDPE-modified mix was found to be the most effective. Road construction with CR-modified HMA was found to be the most cost-effective with Rs. 0.166 million saving per lane km, compared to conventional, LDPE- and HDPE-modified HMA.


Hot mix asphalt Polymer Waste management HMA properties 


Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.


  1. 1.
    Awwad, M.T.; Shbeeb, L.: The use of polyethylene in hot asphalt mixtures. Am. J. Appl. Sci. 4(6), 390–396 (2007)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  2. 2.
    Casey, D.; McNally, C.; Gibney, A.; Gilchrist, M.D.: Development of a recycled polymer modified binder for use in stone mastic asphalt. Resour. Conserv. Recycl. 52(10), 1167–1174 (2008)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  3. 3.
    Hafeez, I.; Kamal, M.A.: Effects of mineral filler to polymer modified bitumen ratio on the design properties of hot mix asphalt and its performance. Mehran Univ. Res. J. Eng. Technol. 29(4), 581–588 (2010)Google Scholar
  4. 4.
    Airey, G.D.; Singleton, T.M.; Collop, A.C.: Properties of polymer modified bitumen after rubber–bitumen interaction. J. Mater. Civ. Eng. 14(4), 344–354 (2002)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  5. 5.
    Zheng, Y.; Shen, Z.; Cai, C.; Ma, S.; Xing, Y.: The reuse of nonmetals recycled from waste printed circuit boards as reinforcing fillers in the polypropylene composites. J. Hazard. Mater. 163(2), 600–606 (2009)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  6. 6.
    Bindu, C.S.; Beena, K.S.: Waste plastic as a stabilizing additive in stone mastic asphalt. Int. J. Eng. Technol. 2(6), 379–387 (2010)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  7. 7.
    Rahman, M.N.; Ahmeduzzaman, M.; Sobhan, M.A.; Ahmed, T.U.: Performance evaluation of waste polyethylene and pvc on hot asphalt mixtures. Am. J. Civ. Eng. Archit. 1(5), 97–102 (2013)Google Scholar
  8. 8.
    Lee, S.J.; Akisetty, C.K.; Amirkhanian, S.N.: The effect of crumb rubber modifier (CRM) on the performance properties of rubberized binders in HMA pavements. Constr. Build. Mater. 22(7), 1368–1376 (2008)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  9. 9.
    Murphy, M.; O’Mahony, M.; Lycett, C.; Jamieson, I.: Recycled polymers for use as bitumen modifiers. J. Mater. Civ. Eng. 13(4), 306–314 (2001)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  10. 10.
    Zoorob, S.E.; Suparma, L.B.: Laboratory design and investigation of the properties of continuously graded asphaltic concrete containing recycled plastics aggregate replacement. Cem. Concr. Compos. 22(4), 233–242 (2000)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  11. 11.
    Vasudevan, R.; Rajasekaran, S.: Study on the construction of flexible road using plastic coated aggregate. In: Global Plastics Environmental Conference (GPEC), Atlanta, USA (2006).Google Scholar
  12. 12.
    Rajasekaran, S.; Vasudevan, R.; Paulraj, S.: Reuse of waste plastics coated aggregates-bitumen mix composite for road application-green method. Am. J. Eng. Res. 2, 1–13 (2013)Google Scholar
  13. 13.
    Flynn, L.: Recylced plastic finds home in asphalt binder. Roads Bridges 31(3), 41–47 (1993)Google Scholar
  14. 14.
    Hassani, A.; Ganjidoust, H.; Maghanaki, A.A.: Use of plastic waste (poly-ethylene terephthalate) in asphalt concrete mixture as aggregate replacement. Waste Manag. Res. 23(4), 322–327 (2005)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  15. 15.
    Bahia, H.U.; Davies, R.: Effect of crumb rubber modifiers on performance related properties of asphalt binders. Asph. Paving Technol. 63, 414–414 (1994)Google Scholar
  16. 16.
    Igwe, E.A.; Nwaobakata, C.; Eme, D.B.: Ground tire chips influence on the rheological properties of grade 60/70 bitumen used in flexible road pavements. Int. J. Eng. Math. Intell. 2(3), 01–08 (2011)Google Scholar
  17. 17.
    Justo, C.E.G.; Veeraragavan, A.: Utilization of Waste Plastic Bags in Bituminous Mix for Improved Performance of Roads. Centre for Transportation Engineering, Bangalore University, Bangalore (2002)Google Scholar
  18. 18.
    Khan, K.M.; Hanifullah Afzal, M.; Ali, F.; Ahmed, A.; Sultan, T.: Rutting performance of polyethylene, lime and elvaloy modified asphalt mixes. Life Sci. J. 10(7), 363–371 (2013)Google Scholar
  19. 19.
    Ali, T.; Iqbal, N.; Ali, M.; Shahzada, K.: Sustainability assessment of bitumen with polyethylene as polymer. IOSR J. Mech. Civ. Eng. 10(5), 01–06 (2014)Google Scholar
  20. 20.
    Silva, H.M.R.D.D.; Machado, A.V.; Oliveira, J.; Costa, L.M.B.: Waste polymers recycling in high performance asphalt mixtures. In: WASTES; Solutions, Treatments and Opportunities-1st International Conference. University of Minho in Guimarães, Portugal, 12–14 September 2011Google Scholar
  21. 21.
    Sangita, G.R.; Verinder, K.: A novel approach to improve road quality by utilizing plastic waste in road construction. J. Environ. Res. Dev. (JERAD) 5(4), 1036–1042 (2011)Google Scholar
  22. 22.
    Appiaha, J.K.; Berko-Boateng, V.N.; Trinity Ama Tagbor, T.A.: Use of waste plastic materials for road construction in Ghana. Case Stud. Constr. Mater. 6, 1–7 (2017)Google Scholar
  23. 23.
    Wulandari, P.S.; Tajandra, D.: Use of crumb rubber as an additive in asphalt concrete mixture. Procedia Eng. 171, 1384–1389 (2017)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  24. 24.
    Al-Abdul-Wahhab, H.; Al-Amri, G.: Laboratory evaluation of reclaimed rubber asphaltic concrete mixes. J. Mater. Civ. Eng. 3(3), 189–203 (1991)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  25. 25.
    Shankar, S.; Prasad, C.S.R.K.: Evaluation of rutting potential for crumb rubber modified bitumen in asphaltic mixes. Emir. J. Eng. Res. 14(2), 91–95 (2009)Google Scholar
  26. 26.
    National Highway Authority (NHA), Pakistan. (2017). Accessed 14 Aug 2017
  27. 27.
    Omnexus Plastics Datbase. (2017). Accessed 20 Sept 2017

Copyright information

© King Fahd University of Petroleum & Minerals 2019

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.National Institute of Transportation (NIT), NUST College of Civil Engineering (MCE)National University of Sciences and Technology (NUST)RisalpurPakistan
  2. 2.National Institute of Transportation (NIT)National University of Sciences and Technology (NUST)RisalpurPakistan
  3. 3.School of Civil and Environmental Engineering (SCEE)National University of Sciences and Technology (NUST)IslamabadPakistan

Personalised recommendations