Preparation and Characterization of Shiitake Mushroom-Based Activated Carbon with High Adsorption Capacity

  • Zhiwei Sun
  • C. Srinivasakannan
  • Jinsheng LiangEmail author
  • Xinhui DuanEmail author
Research Article - Chemical Engineering


The potential of utilizing shiitake mushroom as feed stock for the preparation of activated carbon by chemical activation method with \(\text {K}_{2}\text {CO}_{3}\) was explored. The prepared materials were characterized by thermogravimetric analysis, \(\text {N}_{2}\) adsorption–desorption analysis, scanning electron microscope, Fourier transform infrared spectrometer, X-ray diffraction and Raman spectra. The activation mechanisms were proposed with the aid of thermogravimetric analysis. X-ray diffraction and Raman analysis indicated that the activated carbon was amorphous macroscopically. The influences of activation temperature, mass ratio of \(\text {K}_{2}\text {CO}_{3}\)/shiitake mushroom, activation duration, heating rate and material mixed mode on the yield, porosity and surface morphology of the activated carbon were investigated in detail. The synthesized activated carbons was predominantly microporous having a specific surface area of 2330 m\(^{2}\)/g, and the optimal process conditions were activation temperature of 800 \(^{\circ }\)C, mass ratio of \(\text {K}_{2}\text {CO}_{3}\)/shiitake mushroom of 1.5, activation duration of 180 min, heating rate of 5 \(^{\circ }\)C/min and mixed mode of impregnation. Addition to high surface area, it also exhibited a high iodine number adsorption capacity of 1432 mg/g and methylene blue adsorption capacity of 872 mg/g, which are far higher than the adsorption capacities reported in the open literature. These results demonstrate that the synthesized activated carbon could be utilized for variety of industrial applications.


Activated carbon Shiitake mushroom \(\text {K}_{2}\text {CO}_{3}\) Activation mechanisms Specific surface area Adsorption capacity 


Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.



This work was supported by the National Natural Science Foundation of China (51641403/E0418).

Compliance with ethical standards

Conflict of interest


Supplementary material

13369_2019_3746_MOESM1_ESM.doc (3.1 mb)
Supplementary material 1 (doc 3130 KB)


  1. 1.
    Ng, S.W.L.; Yilmaz, G.; Ong, W.L.; et al.: One-step activation towards spontaneous etching of hollow and hierarchical porous carbon nanospheres for enhanced pollutant adsorption and energy storage. Appl. Catal. B Environ. 220, 533–541 (2018)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  2. 2.
    Tsoncheva, T.; Mileva, A.; Marinov, S.P.; et al.: Activated carbon from used motor oil as catalyst support for sustainable environmental protection. Microporous Mesoporous Mater. 259, 9–16 (2018)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  3. 3.
    Zhexembekova, A.; Akhmetova, N.; Molkenova, A.; et al.: Thiol-modified activated carbon material for sensor technology. Mater. Today Proc. 4, 4599–4602 (2017)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  4. 4.
    Tan, X.; Liu, S.; Liu, Y.; et al.: Biochar as potential sustainable precursors for activated carbon production: multiple applications in environmental protection and energy storage. Bioresour. Technol. 227, 359–372 (2017)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  5. 5.
    Zhou, X.; Wang, P.; Zhang, Y.; et al.: Biomass based nitrogen-doped structure-tunable versatile porous carbon material. J. Mater. Chem. A 5, 12958–12968 (2017)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  6. 6.
    Xiao, X.; Liu, D.; Yan, Y.; et al.: Preparation of activated carbon from Xinjiang region coal by microwave activation and its application in naphthalene, phenanthrene, and pyrene adsorption. J. Taiwan Inst. Chem. Eng. 53, 160–167 (2015)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  7. 7.
    Yuan, X.; Choi, S.W.; Jang, E.; et al.: Chemically activated microporous carbon derived from petroleum coke: performance evaluation for \(\text{ CF }_{4}\) adsorption. Chem. Eng. J. 336, 297–305 (2018)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  8. 8.
    Botomé, M.L.; Poletto, P.; Junges, J.; et al.: Preparation and characterization of a metal-rich activated carbon from CCA-treated wood for \(\text{ CO }_{2}\) capture. Chem. Eng. J. 321, 614–621 (2017)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  9. 9.
    Ai, F.; Liu, N.; Wang, W.; et al.: Heteroatoms-doped porous carbon derived from tuna bone for high performance Li–S batteries. Electrochim. Acta 258, 80–89 (2017)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  10. 10.
    Correa, C.R.; Otto, T.; Kruse, A.: Influence of the biomass components on the pore formation of activated carbon. Biomass Bioenerg. 97, 53–64 (2017)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  11. 11.
    Su, X.; Chen, J.; Zheng, G.; et al.: Three-dimensional porous activated carbon derived from loofah sponge biomass for supercapacitor applications. Appl. Surf. Sci. 436, 327–336 (2018)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  12. 12.
    Han, J.; Kwon, J.H.; Lee, Jae-Won; et al.: An effective approach to preparing partially graphitic activated carbon derived from structurally separated pitch pine biomass. Carbon 118, 431–437 (2017)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  13. 13.
    Wang, L.; Zhang, Z.; Qu, Y.; et al.: A novel route for preparation of high-performance porous carbon from hydrochars by KOH activation. Colloids Surf. A 447, 183–187 (2014)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  14. 14.
    Danish, M.; Hashim, R.; Ibrahim, M.N.M.; et al.: Characterization of Acacia mangium wood based activated carbons prepared in the presence of basic activating agents. BioResources 3, 3019–3033 (2011)Google Scholar
  15. 15.
    Rafatullah, M.; Ahmad, T.; Ghazali, A.; et al.: Oil palm biomass as a precursor of activated carbons: a review. Crit. Rev. Environ. Sci. Technol. 43, 1117–1161 (2013)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  16. 16.
    Liu, J.; Liu, B.; Wang, C.; et al.: Walnut shell-derived activated carbon: synthesis and its application in the sulfur cathode for lithium–sulfur batteries. J. Alloys Compd. 718, 373–378 (2017)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  17. 17.
    Fasakin, O.; Dangbegnon, J.K.; Momodu, D.Y.; et al.: Synthesis and characterization of porous carbon derived from activated banana peels with hierarchical porosity for improved electrochemical performance. Electrochim. Acta 262, 187–196 (2018)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  18. 18.
    Chen, M.; Yan, D.; Zhang, X.; et al.: Activated carbon by a hydrothermal-assisted activated method for Li–ion batteries. Mater. Lett. 196, 276–279 (2017)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  19. 19.
    Okman, I.; Karagöz, S.; Tay, T.; et al.: Activated carbon from grape seeds by chemical activation with potassium carbonate and potassium hydroxide. Appl. Surf. Sci. 293, 138–142 (2014)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  20. 20.
    Sun, Z.; Duan, X.; Srinivasakannan, C.; et al.: Preparation, optimization and characterization of carbon fibers adsorbent from cotton by microwave induced ZnCl\(_{2}\) activation. Sci. Adv. Mater. 10, 724–733 (2018)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  21. 21.
    Li, S.; Han, K.; Li, J.; et al.: Preparation and characterization of super activated carbon produced from gulfweed by KOH activation. Microporous Mesoporous Mater. 243, 291–300 (2017)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  22. 22.
    Chung, S.H.; Manthiram, A.: Carbonized eggshell membrane as a natural polysulfide reservoir for highly reversible Li–S batteries. Adv. Mater. 26, 1360–1365 (2014)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  23. 23.
    Liu, H.; Ning, W.; Cheng, P.; et al.: Evaluation of animal hairs-based activated carbon for sorption of norfloxacin and acetaminophen by comparing with cattail fiber-based activated carbon. J. Anal. Appl. Pyrol. 101, 156–165 (2013)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  24. 24.
    Wu, H.; Mou, J.; Zhou, L.; et al.: Cloud cap-like, hierarchically porous carbon derived from mushroom as an excellent host cathode for high performance lithium–sulfur batteries. Electrochim. Acta 212, 1021–1030 (2016)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  25. 25.
    Lozano-Castelló, D.; Lillo-Ródenas, M.A.; Cazorla-Amorós, D.; et al.: Preparation of activated carbon from Spanish anthracite: I. Activation by KOH. Carbon 39, 741–749 (2001)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  26. 26.
    Yue, L.; Xia, Q.; Wang, L.; et al.: \(\text{ CO }_{2}\) adsorption at nitrogen-doped carbon prepared by \(\text{ K }_{2}\text{ CO }_{3}\) activation of urea-modified coconut shell. J. Colloid Interface Sci. 511, 259–267 (2018)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  27. 27.
    Xiao, H.; Peng, H.; Deng, S.; et al.: Preparation of activated carbon from edible fungi residue by microwave assisted \(\text{ K }_{2}\text{ CO }_{3}\) activation—application in reactive black 5 adsorption from aqueous solution. Bioresour. Technol. 111, 127–133 (2012)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  28. 28.
    Ahmad, A.; Mohd-Setapar, S.H.; Chuong, C.S.; et al.: Recent advances in new generation dye removal technologies: novel search for approaches to reprocess wastewater. RSC Adv. 5, 30801–30818 (2015)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  29. 29.
    Rafatullah, M.; Sulaiman, O.; Hashim, R.; et al.: Adsorption of methylene blue on low-cost adsorbents: a review. J. Hazard. Mater. 177, 70–80 (2010)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  30. 30.
    Vakili, M.; Rafatullah, M.; Salamatinia, B.; et al.: Application of chitosan and its derivatives as adsorbents for dye removal from water and wastewater: a review. Carbohydr. Polym. 113, 115–130 (2014)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  31. 31.
    Heibati, B.; Rodriguez-Couto, S.; Amrane, A.; et al.: Uptake of reactive black 5 by pumice and walnut activated carbon: chemistry and adsorption mechanisms. J. Ind. Eng. Chem. 20, 2939–2947 (2014)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  32. 32.
    Zhu, X.; Yu, S.; Xu, K.; et al.: Sustainable activated carbons from dead ginkgo leaves for supercapacitor electrode active materials. Chem. Eng. Sci. 181, 36–45 (2018)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  33. 33.
    Zhang, G.; Chen, Y.; Chen, Y.; et al.: Activated biomass carbon made from bamboo as electrode material for supercapacitors. Mater. Res. Bull. 102, 391–398 (2018)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  34. 34.
    Chen, W.; Liu, X.; He, R.; et al.: Activated carbon powders from wool fibers. Powder Technol. 234, 76–83 (2013)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  35. 35.
    Deng, H.; Li, G.; Yang, H.; et al.: Preparation of activated carbons from cotton stalk by microwave assisted KOH and \(\text{ K }_{2}\text{ CO }_{3}\) activation. Chem. Eng. J. 163, 373–381 (2010)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  36. 36.
    Kim, J.; Lee, D.; Bae, T.; et al.: The electrochemical enzymatic glucose biosensor based on mesoporous carbon fibers activated by potassium carbonate. J. Ind. Eng. Chem. 25, 192–198 (2015)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  37. 37.
    Zhou, L.; Yu, Q.; Cui, Y.; et al.: Adsorption properties of activated carbon from reed with a high adsorption capacity. Ecol. Eng. 102, 443–450 (2017)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  38. 38.
    Mestre, A.S.; Bexiga, A.S.; Proença, M.; et al.: Activated carbon from sisal waste by chemical activation with \(\text{ K }_{2}\text{ CO }_{3}\): kinetics of paracetamol and ibuprofen removal from aqueous solution. Bioresour. Technol. 102, 8253–8260 (2011)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  39. 39.
    Galhetas, M.; Mestre, A.S.; Pinto, M.L.; et al.: Chars from gasification of coal and pine activated with \(\text{ K }_{2}\text{ CO }_{3}\): acetaminophen and caffeine adsorption from aqueous solutions. J. Colloid Interface Sci. 433, 94–103 (2014)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  40. 40.
    Cabal, B.; Budinova, T.; Ania, C.O.; et al.: Adsorption of naphthalene from aqueous solution on activated carbon obtained from bean pods. J. Hazard. Mater. 161, 1150–1156 (2009)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  41. 41.
    Hayashi, J.; Yamamoto, N.; Horikawa, T.; et al.: Preparation and characterization of high-specific-surface-area activated carbon from \(\text{ K }_{2}\text{ CO }_{3}\)-treated waste polyurethane. J. Colloid Interface Sci. 281, 437–443 (2005)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  42. 42.
    Marrakchi, F.; Ahmed, M.J.; Khanday, W.A.; et al.: Mesoporous-activated carbon prepared from chitosan flakes via single-step sodium hydroxide activation for the adsorption of methylene blue. Int. J. Biol. Macromol. 98, 233–239 (2017)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  43. 43.
    Azharul Islam, Md; Ahmed, M.J.; Khanday, W.A.; et al.: Mesoporous activated coconut shell-derived hydrochar prepared via hydrothermal carbonization-NaOH activation for methylene blue adsorption. J. Environ. Manag. 203, 237–244 (2017)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  44. 44.
    Li, Z.; Wang, G.; Zhai, K.; et al.: Methylene blue adsorption from aqueous solution by loofah sponge-based porous carbons. Colloids Surface A 538, 28–35 (2018)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  45. 45.
    Baytar, O.; Şahin, Ö.; Saka, C.: Sequential application of microwave and conventional heating methods for preparation of activated carbon from biomass and its methylene blue adsorption. Appl. Therm. Eng. 138, 542–551 (2018)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  46. 46.
    Yang, J.; Qiu, K.: Preparation of activated carbons from walnut shells via vacuum chemical activation and their application for methylene blue removal. Chem. Eng. J. 165, 209–217 (2010)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  47. 47.
    Azharul Islam, Md; Ahmed, M.J.; Khanday, W.A.; et al.: Mesoporous activated carbon prepared from NaOH activation of rattan (Lacosperma secundiflorum) hydrochar for methylene blue removal. Ecotoxicol. Environ. Saf. 138, 279–285 (2017)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  48. 48.
    Spagnoli, Angela A.; Giannakoudakis, Dimitrios A.; Bashkova, S.: Adsorption of methylene blue on cashew nut shell based carbons activated with zinc chloride: the role of surface and structural parameters. J. Mol. Liq. 229, 465–471 (2017)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  49. 49.
    Liu, D.; Yuan, W.; Yuan, P.: Physical activation of diatomite-templated carbons and its effect on the adsorption of methylene blue (MB). Appl. Surf. Sci. 282, 838–843 (2013)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  50. 50.
    Heidarinejad, Z.; Rahmanian, O.; Fazlzadeh, M.: Enhancement of methylene blue adsorption onto activated carbon prepared from Date Press Cake by low frequency ultrasound. J. Mol. Liq. 264, 591–599 (2018)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  51. 51.
    Hassan, Asaad F.; H, Elhadidy: Production of activated carbons from waste carpets and its application in methylene blue adsorption: kinetic and thermodynamic studies. J. Environ. Chem. Eng. 5, 955–963 (2017)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  52. 52.
    Beakou, B.H.; Hassani, K.E.; Houssain, M.A.: Novel activated carbon from Manihot esculenta Crantz for removal of Methylene Blue. Sustain. Environ. Res. 27, 215–222 (2017)CrossRefGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© King Fahd University of Petroleum & Minerals 2019

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Key Laboratory of Special Functional Materials for Ecological Environment and InformationHebei University of Technology, Ministry of EducationTianjinPeople’s Republic of China
  2. 2.Institute of Power Source and Ecomaterials ScienceHebei University of TechnologyTianjinPeople’s Republic of China
  3. 3.Chemical Engineering Department, The Petroleum InstituteKhalifa University of Science and TechnologyAbu DhabiUAE

Personalised recommendations