Arabian Journal for Science and Engineering

, Volume 44, Issue 8, pp 6951–6965 | Cite as

TLBO-Optimized FOPI Controller for Three-Phase Active Rectifier Using ZDPC Technique

  • Amit KumarEmail author
  • Gopalakrishna Srungavarapu
Research Article - Electrical Engineering


Traditional direct power control (DPC) method is a simple and proficient way to control the three-phase active rectifiers, but its response is unacceptable when the power converter is subjected to abnormal grid conditions. This paper proposes the zero direct power control (ZDPC) methodology with teaching–learning-based optimal fractional order proportional integral (FOPI) controller to improve the performance of DPC method under unbalanced and harmonically polluted grid voltage conditions. In the proposed approach, a better performance is obtained by directly controlling the instantaneous active and reactive powers of the harmonic component of currents considering a predefined lookup table. In the proposed technique to achieve the complete elimination of the impact of the grid disturbance, the reference of both active and reactive powers is explicitly provided from outside of the controller and is set to zero. The teaching–learning-based optimized (TLBO) FOPI controller is utilized for better regulation of dc bus voltage. Additionally, the proposed approach does not require any prior familiarity with disturbance behavior, sequence components of voltages and currents. Also, it does not need harmonic component extractions. In the proposed control technique, a simple phase-locked loop (PLL) is utilized to extract the fundamental component of currents and to obtain the angular position of the grid voltage space vector in the stationary \(\upalpha \)-\(\upbeta \) reference frame. The simulation results have confirmed the supremacy of the proposed ZDPC with optimal FOPI under unbalanced and harmonically contaminated grid conditions as compared to conventional DPC.


Zero direct power control (ZDPC) Lookup table Phase-locked loop (PLL) Fractional order proportional integral (FOPI) Teaching–learning-based optimization (TLBO) 

List of Symbols

\( e_{g},_{ a}, e_{g},_{ b }\) and \(e_{g},_{ c }\)

Phase voltages of the grid

\( e_{g},_{{\varvec{\alpha }}}\) and \(e_{g},_{{\varvec{\beta }}}\)

Grid voltages in stationary \({\varvec{\upalpha }}{\varvec{\upbeta }}\) reference frame

\( i_{g},_{{\varvec{\alpha }}}\) and \(i_{g},_{{\varvec{\beta }}}\)

Grid currents in stationary \({\varvec{\upalpha }}{\varvec{\upbeta }}\) reference frame

\( i_{g},_{ a}, i_{g},_{ b }\) and \(i_{g},_{ c }\)

Grid line currents

\( i_{g},_{ ah,} \ i_{g},_{ bh}\) and \(\ i_{g},_{ ch }\)

Harmonic component of grid currents

\( i^{*}_{g},_{ a1}, i^{*}_{g},_{ b1 }\) and \(i^{*}_{g},_{ c1}\)

Fundamental currents extracted with PLL

\( v_{\mathrm{conv}},_{ a}, v_\mathrm{{conv}},_{ b }\) and \(v_{\mathrm{conv}, c }\)

AC terminal voltages of the converter


Total instantaneous active and reactive powers

\( p_{h}, q_{h}\)

Powers due to harmonic component of grid currents

\( p_{h }^*, \ q_{h }^*\)

Reference harmonic powers

\( S_{a}, S_{b}, S_{c }\)

Switching states of upper switches of the converter

\( S^{{\prime }}_{a},S^{{\prime }}_{b}\), \(^{{\prime }}_{c}\)

Switching states of lower switches of the converter


Inductance and resistance of the smoothing inductor


DC link capacitor

\( R_{L}\)

Load resistance

\( v_\mathrm{{dc}}\)

DC link voltage

\( v^{*}_\mathrm{{dc}}\)

Reference DC bus voltage

\( T_{s}\)

Sampling period

\( F_{s}\)

Sampling frequency

\( H_{p}\)

Upper limit of hysteresis active power controller

\( H_{q}\)

Upper limit of hysteresis reactive power controller


Lower limit of hysteresis active power controller


Lower limit of hysteresis reactive power controller


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Copyright information

© King Fahd University of Petroleum & Minerals 2019

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Department of Electrical EngineeringNITRourkelaIndia

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