Arabian Journal for Science and Engineering

, Volume 44, Issue 1, pp 315–328 | Cite as

Heterogeneous Fenton Oxidation of Caffeine Using Zeolite-Supported Iron Nanoparticles

  • Mehwish AnisEmail author
  • Sajjad Haydar
Research Article - Chemistry


The current study aimed at exploring the potential of iron-embedded zeolites to serve as heterogeneous Fenton catalyst for the treatment of caffeine. Synthetic zeolites were modified through co-precipitation and subsequent deposition of iron precipitates on the zeolites. Catalyst was characterized through chemical composition, particle size and its distribution, BET specific surface area, FTIR, and XRD techniques. Batch mode studies were carried out, and process parameters including pH, contact time, and iron to hydrogen peroxide ratio (\(\hbox {Fe}^{+2}\):\(\hbox {H}_{2}\hbox {O}_{2})\) were optimized. Response surface methodology was employed for this purpose using Design Expert 10.0 software. \(\hbox {Fe}^{+2}\):\(\hbox {H}_{2}\hbox {O}_{2}\) ratio was found to be the most important parameter affecting the removal of caffeine. Significant interaction between pH and \(\text {Fe}^{+2}\):\(\hbox {H}_{2}\hbox {O}_{2}\) ratio was also observed. More than 80% removal of caffeine was achieved when the pH was in the range of 5.8–7 and \(\text {Fe}^{+2}\):\(\hbox {H}_{2}\hbox {O}_{2}\) ratio in the range of 2.5–3. Catalyst was found stable, and negligible loss of iron under experimental conditions was observed. Moreover, the catalyst could be reused for at least three successive runs of treatment without significant loss in the activity of the catalyst.


Response surface methodology Advanced oxidation process Catalyst Design Expert Heterogeneous fenton Nanoparticle 


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Funding Information

This research was funded by University of Engineering and Technology, Lahore, Pakistan.

Compliance with ethical standards

Conflict of interest

The authors declare that they have no conflict of interest.


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Copyright information

© King Fahd University of Petroleum & Minerals 2018

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Institute of Environmental Engineering and Research (IEER)University of Engineering and Technology (UET)LahorePakistan
  2. 2.IEERUETLahorePakistan

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