Arabian Journal for Science and Engineering

, Volume 44, Issue 1, pp 305–313 | Cite as

Fast and Fully Scalable Synthesis of Graphene Oxide from Cellulose by Catalytic Acid Spray Method (CAS)

  • Mahmoud FathyEmail author
  • Th. Abdel Moghny
  • Mahmoud Ahmed Mousa
Research Article - Chemistry


Graphene oxide (GO) characterized by high electrical conductivity and thermal stability can be considered as a single monomolecular graphite layer, containing numerous functional oxygen groups such as epoxide, carbonyl, carboxyl and hydroxyl groups. Therefore, in this work, we have come to produce high quantities of GO sheets by innovative, simple and hydrazine-free methods based on rice straw, using catalytic acid spray method (CAS) in the presence of cobalt silicate nanoparticle as a catalyst. The structure of graphene oxide was characterized by FTIR, Raman, HR-TEM and DLS. FTIR shows that GO comprises some efficient hydroxyl (OH), epoxy (cyclic ether), carboxyl and carbonyl groups. XRD shows that the interlayer spacing of GO prepared by our techniques is higher to some extent than the interlayer spacing of other GO produced by another processes. We can say that, GO sheets can be produced for various applications, in large quantities, high efficiency and low cost, by adjusting the parameters such as acid strength or catalytic doses used in the CAS method. Thereby, we can overcome the weak inter-bond between the GO sheets without cracking them.


Graphene Catalyst Spray Interspacing Lattices Silica 


Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.


  1. 1.
    Fathy, M.; et al.: Incorporation of multi-walled carbon nanotubes in microspheres used as anion exchange resin via suspension polymerization. Appl. Nanosci. 4(5), 543–549 (2014)Google Scholar
  2. 2.
    Randviir, E.P.; Brownson, D.A.C.; Banks, C.E.: A decade of graphene research: production, applications and outlook. Mater. Today 17(9), 426–432 (2014)Google Scholar
  3. 3.
    Ramzi, M.; El-Sayed, R.H.; Fathy, M.; Moghny, T.A.: Evaluation of scale inhibitors performance under simulated flowing field conditions using dynamic tube blocking test. Int. J. Chem. Sci. 14(1), 16–28 (2016)Google Scholar
  4. 4.
    Farrag, A.E.H.A.; Moghny, T.A.; Gad, A.M.; Saleem, S.S.; Fathy, M.; Ahmed, M.A.: Removing of hardness salts from groundwater by thermogenic synthesis zeolite. SDRP J. Earth Sci. Environ. Stud. 1, 109 (2016)Google Scholar
  5. 5.
    Farrag, A.E.H.A.; Moghny, T.A.; Gad, A.M.: SSSaleem, M Fathy, Abu Zenima synthetic zeolite for removing iron and manganese from Assiut governorate groundwater. Egypt. Appl. Water Sci. 7, 3087 (2016). Google Scholar
  6. 6.
    Farrag, A.; et al.: Removing of hardness salts from groundwater by thermogenic synthesis zeolite. J. Hydrogeol. Hydrol. Eng. 5(4), 9647 (2016). Google Scholar
  7. 7.
    Fathy, M.; Abdel Moghny, T.; Awad, A.E.; AbdElhamid, : Cation exchange resin nanocomposites based on multi-walled carbon nanotubes. Appl. Nanosci. 4(1), 103–112 (2014)Google Scholar
  8. 8.
    Xu, J.; Wang, Y.; Hu, S.: Nanocomposites of graphene and graphene oxides: synthesis, molecular functionalization and application in electrochemical sensors and biosensors. A review. Microchim. Acta 184(1), 1–44 (2017)Google Scholar
  9. 9.
    Lee, J.H.; et al.: Adsorption mechanisms of lithium oxides (LixO2) on N-doped graphene: a density functional theory study with implications for lithium-air batteries. Theor. Chem. Acc. 135(3), 50 (2016)Google Scholar
  10. 10.
    Fathy, M.; et al.: Nano composites of polystyrene divinylbenzene resin based on oxidized multi-walled carbon nanotubes. Int. J. Modern Org. Chem 2(1), 67–80 (2013)Google Scholar
  11. 11.
    Liang, K.; et al.: Preparation and microwave absorbing properties of graphene oxides/ferrite composites. Appl. Phys. A 123(6), 445 (2017)Google Scholar
  12. 12.
    Xu, Z.: Graphene oxides in filtration and separation applications. In: Gao, W. (ed.) Graphene Oxide: Reduction Recipes, Spectroscopy, and Applications, pp. 129–147. Springer, Cham (2015)Google Scholar
  13. 13.
    Fathy, M.; et al.: Study the adsorption of sulfates by high cross-linked polystyrene divinylbenzene anion-exchange resin. Appl. Water Sci. 7(1), 309–313 (2017)MathSciNetGoogle Scholar
  14. 14.
    El-Sayed, M.; Ramzi, M.; Hosny, R.; Fathy, M.; Abdel, T.: Moghny, Breakthrough curves of oil adsorption on novel amorphous carbon thin film. Water Sci. Technol. 73(10), 2361–2369 (2016)Google Scholar
  15. 15.
    Fathy, M.; El-Sayed, M.; Ramzic, M.; Abdelraheem, O.H.: Adsorption separation of condensate oil from produced water using ACTF prepared of oil palm leaves by batch and fixed bed techniques. Egypt. J. Pet. 27, 319 (2017)Google Scholar
  16. 16.
    Magdy, A.; Wassel, M.F.; Hosny, R.; Desouky, A.M.; Mahmod, A.M.: Study the removal of cupper ions from textile effluent using cross linked chitosan. In: 8th International conferences of Textile Research Division (2017)Google Scholar
  17. 17.
    Magdy, A.; Wassel, M.F.; Hosny, R.; Desouky, A.M.; Mahmod, A.M.; Abdelraheem, O.H.: Evaluation of chromium (Cr III) adsorption using modified chitosan from different pH aqueous solutions. In: 9th International Conference On Chemical and Environmental Engineering (2018)Google Scholar
  18. 18.
    Fathy, M.; Abdel Moghny, T.; Abdou, M.M.; El-Bellihi, A.-H.A.-A.: Study the adsorption of Ca (II) and Mg (II) on high cross linked polystyrene divinyl benzene resin. Int. J. Modern. Chem. 7(1), 36–44 (2015)Google Scholar
  19. 19.
    Mahmoud Fathy, T.A.M.; Mousa, M.A.; ElBellihi, A.-H.A.-A.; Awadallah, A.E.: Sulfonated ion exchange polystyrene composite resin for calcium hardness removal. Int. J. Emerg. Technol. Adv. Eng. 5(10), 20–29 (2015)Google Scholar
  20. 20.
    Fathy, M.; Moghny, T.A.; Mousa, M.A.; El-Bellihi, A.-H.A.-A.; Awadallah, A.E.: Synthesis of transparent amorphous carbon thin films from cellulose powder in rice straw. Arab. J. Sci. Eng. 42, 225 (2016). Google Scholar
  21. 21.
    Rosaiah, P.; et al.: Synthesis of flower-like reduced graphene oxide-Mn3O4 nanocomposite electrodes for supercapacitors. Appl. Phys. A 124(9), 597 (2018)Google Scholar
  22. 22.
    Ramzi, M.; et al.: Breakthrough curves of oil adsorption on novel amorphous carbon thin film. Water Sci Technol. 73(10), 2361 (2016)Google Scholar
  23. 23.
    Fathy, M.; Moghny, T.A.; Mousa, M.A.; El-Bellihi, A.-H.A.-A.; Awadallah, A.E.: Absorption of calcium ions on oxidized graphene sheets and study its dynamic behavior by kinetic and isothermal models. Appl. Nanosci. 6, 1105 (2016). Google Scholar
  24. 24.
    Bolagam, R.; Boddula, R.; Srinivasan, P.: Design and synthesis of ternary composite of polyaniline-sulfonated graphene oxide-TiO2 nanorods: a highly stable electrode material for supercapacitor. J. Solid State Electrochem. 22(1), 129–139 (2018)Google Scholar
  25. 25.
    Nagarani, S.; et al.: Synthesis and characterization of binary transition metal oxide/reduced graphene oxide nanocomposites and its enhanced electrochemical properties for supercapacitor applications. J. Mater. Sci. Mater. Electr. 29(14), 11738–11748 (2018)Google Scholar
  26. 26.
    Moghny, T.A.; et al.: Preparation of sorbent materials for the removal of hardness and organic pollutants from water and wastewater. World Acad. Sci. Eng. Technol. Int. J. Environ. Chem. Ecol. Geol. Geophys. Eng. 11(5), 461–468 (2017)Google Scholar
  27. 27.
    Moghny, M.F.M.A.M.T.A.: Characterization and evaluation of amorphous carbon thin film (ACTF) for sodium ion adsorption. Appl. Water Sci. 7, 4427 (2017). Google Scholar
  28. 28.
    Ali, A.; Bahadur Rahut, D.; Behera, B.: Factors influencing farmersx adoption of energy-based water pumps and impacts on crop productivity and household income in Pakistan. Renew. Sustain. Energy Rev. 54, 48–57 (2016)Google Scholar
  29. 29.
    Ali, M.E.A.; et al.: Thin film composite membranes embedded with graphene oxide for water desalination. Desalination 386, 67–76 (2016)Google Scholar
  30. 30.
    Ammar, A.I.; Kruse, S.E.: Resistivity soundings and VLF profiles for siting groundwater wells in a fractured basement aquifer in the Arabian Shield, Saudi Arabia. J. Afr. Earth Sci. 116, 56–67 (2016)Google Scholar
  31. 31.
    Alvino, A.; Barbieri, G.: Vegetables of temperate climates: leafy vegetables A2 - Caballero, Benjamin. In: Finglas, P.M., Toldrá, F. (eds.) Encyclopedia of Food and Health, pp. 393–400. Academic Press, Oxford (2016)Google Scholar
  32. 32.
    Lin, Y.-C.; et al.: The synthesis and characterization of graphene oxides based on a modified approach. J. Therm. Anal. Calorim. 116(3), 1249–1255 (2014)Google Scholar
  33. 33.
    Li, J.; et al.: Nanoscale zero-valent iron particles modified on reduced graphene oxides using a plasma technique for Cd(II) removal. J. Taiwan Inst. Chem. Eng. 59, 389–394 (2016)Google Scholar
  34. 34.
    Singh, R.; Kumar, D.; Tripathi, C.C.: Concentration enhancement of liquid phase exfoliated graphene with addition of organic salts. Proc. Comput. Sci. 70, 565–571 (2015)Google Scholar
  35. 35.
    Gupta, S.; Carrizosa, S.B.: Graphene-inorganic hybrids with cobalt oxide polymorphs for electrochemical energy systems and electrocatalysis: synthesis, processing and properties. J. Electr. Mater. 44(11), 4492–4509 (2015)Google Scholar
  36. 36.
    Wang, K.: Synthesis of hydrophobic carbon nanotubes/reduced graphene oxide composite films by flash light irradiation. Front. Chem. Sci. Eng. 12(3), 376–382 (2018)Google Scholar
  37. 37.
    Prince, J.A.; et al.: Ultra-wetting graphene-based membrane. J. Membr. Sci. 500, 76–85 (2016)Google Scholar
  38. 38.
    Justh, N.; et al.: Thermal analysis of the improved Hummers’ synthesis of graphene oxide. J. Therm. Anal. Calorim. 131(3), 2267–2272 (2018)Google Scholar
  39. 39.
    Sun, W.; et al.: Synthesis of magnetic graphene nanocomposites decorated with ionic liquids for fast lead ion removal. Int. J. Biol. Macromol. 85, 246–251 (2016)Google Scholar
  40. 40.
    Timofeeva, T.E.; et al.: The effect of temperature conditions during graphene oxide synthesis on humidity dependence of conductivity in thermally reduced graphene oxide. J. Struct. Chem. 59(4), 799–805 (2018)Google Scholar
  41. 41.
    Khatmi Maab, N.Z.; Shokuhfar, A.; Ahmadi, S.: The effect of temperature and type of peroxide on graphene synthesized by improved Hummers’ method. Int. Nano Lett. 6(4), 211–214 (2016)Google Scholar
  42. 42.
    Zhu, Y.; et al.: Monolithic supermacroporous hydrogel prepared from high internal phase emulsions (HIPEs) for fast removal of Cu2+ and Pb2+. Chem. Eng. J. 284, 422–430 (2016)Google Scholar
  43. 43.
    Jilani, A.; et al.: Graphene and its derivatives: synthesis, modifications, and applications in wastewater treatment. Environ. Chem. Lett. 16, 1301 (2018)Google Scholar
  44. 44.
    Xue, X.; et al.: Synthesis of graphene oxide nanosheets for the removal of Cd(II) ions from acidic aqueous solutions. J. Taiwan Inst. Chem. Eng. 59, 365–372 (2016)Google Scholar
  45. 45.
    Gunda, R.; Madireddy, B.S.; Dash, R.K.: Synthesis of graphene oxide and reduced graphene oxide using volumetric method by a novel approach without NaNO2 or NaNO3. Appl. Nanosci. 8(4), 751–758 (2018)Google Scholar
  46. 46.
    Thiagarajan, K.; et al.: Synthesis of Ni3V2O8@graphene oxide nanocomposite as an efficient electrode material for supercapacitor applications. J. Solid State Electrochem. 22(2), 527–536 (2018)Google Scholar
  47. 47.
    Hosny, R.; et al.: Treatment of the oily produced water (OPW) using coagulant mixtures. Egypt. J. Pet. 25(3), 391–396 (2016)MathSciNetGoogle Scholar
  48. 48.
    Xu, K.; et al.: Synthesis of highly stable graphene oxide membranes on polydopamine functionalized supports for seawater desalination. Chem. Eng. Sci. 146, 159–165 (2016)Google Scholar
  49. 49.
    Xu, X.; et al.: Design and fabrication of mesoporous graphene via carbothermal reaction for highly efficient capacitive deionization. Electrochim. Acta 188, 406–413 (2016)Google Scholar
  50. 50.
    Stewart, D.A.; Mkhoyan, K.A.: Graphene oxide: synthesis, characterization, electronic structure, and applications. In: Raza, H. (ed.) Graphene Nanoelectronics: Metrology, Synthesis, Properties and Applications, pp. 435–464. Springer, Berlin (2012)Google Scholar

Copyright information

© King Fahd University of Petroleum & Minerals 2018

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Applications DepartmentEgyptian Petroleum Research Institute (EPRI)Nasr CityEgypt
  2. 2.Faculty of Science Benha UniversityBanhaEgypt

Personalised recommendations