Arabian Journal for Science and Engineering

, Volume 44, Issue 1, pp 279–288 | Cite as

Biosorption of Cd(II) Ions from Aqueous Solution Using Chitosan-iso-Vanillin as a Low-Cost Sorbent: Equilibrium, Kinetics, and Thermodynamic Studies

  • Fadi AlakhrasEmail author
Research Article - Chemistry


In the current study, the removal of Cd(II) ions from aqueous solution using chitosan-iso-vanillin biosorbent has been investigated. The impacts of pH, exposure time, adsorbent dosage and initial amount of studied ion on the removal process have been carried out using batch experiments. The quantity of residual ions has been estimated via atomic absorption spectrometry. The synthesized biosorbent is characterized using infrared spectroscopy, DTA, and SEM techniques. The maximum sorption of Cd(II) ions is achieved at pH 5. Langmuir isotherm works as the best explanation model for the experimental data with the highest adsorption capacity equal to \(38.31\,\hbox {mg g}^{-1}\). Kinetic studies reveal that chemisorption is the rate-determining step, and the results point out fast rates of metal ion uptake with 77% highest percentage achieved after 60 min. Thermodynamics suggest spontaneous and endothermic process with raise in randomness at the solid/solution interface throughout the bio-adsorption of Cd(II) ions onto modified chitosan.


Biosorption Chitosan-iso-vanillin Wastewater treatment Cadmium removal Isotherm models 


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The author wishes to acknowledge Imam Abdulrahman Bin Faisal University for financial support.

Compliance with ethical standards

Conflicts of interest

No potential conflict of interest was reported by the author(s).


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Copyright information

© King Fahd University of Petroleum & Minerals 2018

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Department of Chemistry, College of ScienceImam Abdulrahman Bin Faisal UniversityDammamSaudi Arabia

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