Arabian Journal for Science and Engineering

, Volume 44, Issue 1, pp 65–74 | Cite as

Overweight and Obesity Prevalence Pattern and Associated Risk Factors Among the People of Malakand Division, Khyber Pakhtunkhwa Pakistan

  • Muhammad Imran
  • Nasrullah Khan
  • Aftab Ali Shah
  • Irshad AhmadEmail author
Research Article - Biological Sciences


We studied the prevalence and key risk factors responsible for overweight and obesity in different age and sex groups in Malakand Division Khyber Pakhtunkhwa Pakistan. Several components of lipid profile and body mass index were obtained for 562 individuals of the population using standard techniques of WHO. Preclinical data were collected based on stratified random sampling design to investigate about the lifestyle, food, blood pressure, cigarette consumption, snuff use and other diseases and life activities. The prevalence of overweight and obesity and their relationship with different gradients were investigated using multivariate analysis, i.e., cluster analysis and ordination techniques. Multivariate analysis classified the individuals into three major dichotomies (groups) and identified triglyceride, cholesterol, low-density lipoproteins and total lipids (\(P>\,0.001\)) as the most influential factors associated with the prevalence of overweight and obesity in the region. The results showed the highest percentage (40%) of obese individuals followed by overweight (38%) and normal (22%), respectively, in the age ranged from 15 to 61 years. It indicated that overweight and obesity is common and an overriding phenomenon in the area. Our findings showed that obesity is significantly higher in female particularly in married women as compare to the male individuals may be due to the unawareness, lifestyle and food. The present pilot study is the first comprehensive report that will help understanding on the prevalence and general awareness about the risk factors associated with overweight and obesity “a Non-Communicable Diseases (NCDs)” in Pakistan.


Obesity Risk factors Body mass index Non-communicable diseases Public health problem Classification and ordination 



Body mass index


World Health Organization


High-density lipoproteins


Low-density lipoproteins


Total lipids






Non-communicable diseases


Cardiovascular diseases


Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.



The personal assistance of I.A. by KFUPM is acknowledged. Dr. Shahid Shaukat (University of Karachi) is acknowledged for the necessary guidance. Dr. Tariq (University of Malakand) is acknowledged for the English editing of the manuscript.


  1. 1.
    Hossain, P.; Kawar, B.; El Nahas, M.: Obesity and diabetes in the developing world-a growing challenge. N. Engl. J. Med. 356(3), 213–215 (2007). CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  2. 2.
    Diet, nutrition and the prevention of chronic diseases. World Health Organ Tech Rep Ser 916, i–viii, 1–149, backcover (2003).Google Scholar
  3. 3.
    Popkin, B.M.; Gordon-Larsen, P.: The nutrition transition: worldwide obesity dynamics and their determinants. Int. J. Obes. 28(S3), S2 (2004)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  4. 4.
    Schmidhuber, J.; Shetty, P.: Nutrition transition, obesity and noncommunicable diseases: drivers, outlook and concerns. SCN News 29, 13–19 (2005)Google Scholar
  5. 5.
    Nishida, C.; Mucavele, P.: Monitoring the rapidly emerging public health problem of overweight and obesity: the WHO Global Database on Body Mass Index. SCN News 29, 5–11 (2005)Google Scholar
  6. 6.
    Tremblay, M.S.; Willms, J.D.: Secular trends in the body mass index of Canadian children. Can. Med. Assoc. J. 163(11), 1429–1433 (2000)Google Scholar
  7. 7.
    Dietz, W.H.; Robinson, T.N.: Overweight children and adolescents. N. Engl. J. Med. 352(20), 2100–2109 (2005)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  8. 8.
    Must, A.; Spadano, J.; Coakley, E.H.; Field, A.E.; Colditz, G.; Dietz, W.H.: The disease burden associated with overweight and obesity. JAMA 282(16), 1523–1529 (1999)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  9. 9.
    Viner, R.M.; Cole, T.J.: Adult socioeconomic, educational, social, and psychological outcomes of childhood obesity: a national birth cohort study. BMJ 330(7504), 1354 (2005)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  10. 10.
    Must, A.; Strauss, R.S.: Risks and consequences of childhood and adolescent obesity. Int. J. Obes. 23(S2), S2 (1999)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  11. 11.
    Dhurandhar, N.; Kulkarni, P.: Prevalence of obesity in Bombay. Int. J. Obes. Relat. Metab. Disord. 16(5), 367–375 (1992)Google Scholar
  12. 12.
    Deurenberg-Yap, M.; Schmidt, G.; van Staveren, W.A.; Deurenberg, P.: The paradox of low body mass index and high body fat percentage among Chinese, Malays and Indians in Singapore. Int. J. Obes. 24(8), 1011 (2000)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  13. 13.
    Keys, A.: Seven countries.A multivariate analysis of death and coronary heart disease. Harvard University Press, Cambrige (1980)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  14. 14.
    Ohlson, L.-O.; Larsson, B.; Svärdsudd, K.; Welin, L.; Eriksson, H.; Wilhelmsen, L.; Björntorp, P.; Tibblin, G.: The influence of body fat distribution on the incidence of diabetes mellitus: 13.5 years of follow-up of the participants in the study of men born in 1913. Diabetes 34(10), 1055–1058 (1985)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  15. 15.
    Barrett-Connor, E.; Khaw, K.: Is hypertension more benign when associated with obesity? Circulation 72(1), 53–60 (1985)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  16. 16.
    Elmer, P.J.; Obarzanek, E.; Vollmer, W.M.; Simons-Morton, D.; Stevens, V.J.; Young, D.R.; Lin, P.-H.; Champagne, C.; Harsha, D.W.; Svetkey, L.P.: Effects of comprehensive lifestyle modification on diet, weight, physical fitness, and blood pressure control: 18-month results of a randomized trial. Ann. Intern. Med. 144(7), 485–495 (2006)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  17. 17.
    Colditz, G.A.: Economic costs of obesity. Am. J. Clin. Nutr. 55(2), 503S–507S (1992)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  18. 18.
    Choudry, I.Y.; Mumford, D.B.: A pilot study of eating disorders in Mirpur (Pakistan) using an Urdu version of the eating attitudes test. Int. J. Eat. Disord. 11(3), 243–251 (1992)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  19. 19.
    Suhail, K.: Prevalence of eating disorders in Pakistan: relationship with depression and body shape. Eating Weight Disord.-Stud. Anorexia, Bulimia Obes. 7(2), 131–138 (2002)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  20. 20.
    P.C.R.: Population Census Report of Multan District, Punjab Bureau of Statistics, Lahore (1998)Google Scholar
  21. 21.
    Khan, N.; Ahmed, M.; Siddiqui, M.F.; Bibi, S.; Ahmed, I.: A phytosociological study of forest and non-forest vegetation of district Chitral, Hindukush Range of Pakistan. FUUAST J. Biol. 2(1), 91 (2012)Google Scholar
  22. 22.
    Legendre, P.; Legendre, L.: Numerical Ecology. Developments in Environmental Modelling, vol. 2. Elsevier Science, Amsterdam (1998)zbMATHGoogle Scholar
  23. 23.
    Ter Braak, C.J.: Canonical correspondence analysis: a new eigenvector technique for multivariate direct gradient analysis. Ecology 67(5), 1167–1179 (1986)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  24. 24.
    Jones, S.E.; Shade, A.L.; McMahon, K.D.; Kent, A.D.: Comparison of primer sets for use in automated ribosomal intergenic spacer analysis of aquatic bacterial communities: an ecological perspective. Appl. Environ. Microbiol. 73(2), 659–662 (2007)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  25. 25.
    McCune, B.; Grace, J.B.; Urban, D.L.: Analysis of Ecological Communities, vol. 28. MjM software design, Gleneden Beach, OR (2002)Google Scholar
  26. 26.
    Friedland, O.; Nemet, D.; Gorodnitsky, N.; Wolach, B.; Eliakim, A.: Obesity and lipid profiles in children and adolescents. J. Pediatr. Endocrinol. Metab. 15(7), 1011–1016 (2002)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  27. 27.
    Garces, C.; Gutierrez-Guisado, J.; Benavente, M.; et al.: Obesity in Spanish schoolchildren: relationship with lipid profile and insulin resistance. Obes. Res. 13, 959–963 (2005)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  28. 28.
    Wattigney, W.A.; Harsha, D.W.; Srinivasan, S.R.; Webber, L.S.; Berenson, G.S.: Increasing impact of obesity on serum lipids and lipoproteins in young adults. The Bogalusa Heart Study. Arch. Intern. Med. 151(10), 2017–2022 (1991)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  29. 29.
    Sharma, M.; Majumdar, P.K.: Occupational lifestyle diseases: an emerging issue. Indian J. Occup. Environ. Med. 13(3), 109–112 (2009). CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  30. 30.
    Donath, S.M.: Who’s overweight? Comparison of the medical definition and community views. Med. J. Aust. 172(8), 375–377 (2000)Google Scholar
  31. 31.
    Stamler, J.: Epidemic obesity in the United States. Arch. Int. Med. 153(9), 1040–1044 (1993)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  32. 32.
    Memon, A.A.; Adil, S.E.; Siddiqui, E.U.; Naeem, S.S.; Ali, S.A.; Mehmood, K.: Eating disorders in medical students of Karachi, Pakistan-a cross-sectional study. BMC Res. Notes 5, 84 (2012). CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  33. 33.
    Ricciardelli, L.A.; McCabe, M.P.: Psychometric evaluation of the body change inventory: an assessment instrument for adolescent boys and girls. Eat. Behav. 3(1), 45–59 (2002)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  34. 34.
    Grundy, S.M.: Hypertriglyceridemia, atherogenic dyslipidemia, and the metabolic syndrome. Am. J. Cardiol. 81(4A), 18B–25B (1998)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  35. 35.
    Shah, S.M.; Nanan, D.; Rahbar, M.H.; Rahim, M.; Nowshad, G.: Assessing obesity and overweight in a high mountain Pakistani population. Trop. Med. Int. Health 9(4), 526–532 (2004). CrossRefGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© King Fahd University of Petroleum & Minerals 2018

Authors and Affiliations

  • Muhammad Imran
    • 1
  • Nasrullah Khan
    • 3
  • Aftab Ali Shah
    • 2
  • Irshad Ahmad
    • 4
    Email author
  1. 1.Department of Medical Microbiology and ParasitologyZhejiang University School of MedicineHangzhouP. R. China
  2. 2.Department of BiotechnologyUniversity of MalakandKhyber PakhtunkhwaPakistan
  3. 3.Department of BotanyUniversity of MalakandKhyber PakhtunkhwaPakistan
  4. 4.Department of Life SciencesKing Fahd University of Petroleum and MineralsDhahranSaudi Arabia

Personalised recommendations