Arabian Journal for Science and Engineering

, Volume 44, Issue 5, pp 4395–4404 | Cite as

Analysis of Distortion-Induced Stress and Retrofitting Technique of Curved Twin I-Girder Composite Bridge

  • M. HossainEmail author
  • M. B. Zisan
  • M. N. Haque
Research Article - Civil Engineering


Distortion-induced fatigue problem at the web–diaphragm connection plays a major role in both durability and serviceability of composite bridges. Out-plane bending of the girder’s web at the diaphragm-web connection of the plate girder is stated as a fundamental source of distortion stress. Also, the stress gets intensified by the presence of curvature at the diaphragm-web connection. Besides, the effect of slab thickness, web-gap depth and cross-frame stiffness on distortion stress is not considered in the existing process of stress calculation. This paper demonstrates the possible causes of distortion stress, factors affecting distortion stress and an appropriate, cost-effective countermeasure for mitigating distortion stress. For this purpose, a three-dimensional curved twin I-girder bridge model is developed and verified with existing work. The numerical problem formulation, model verification, retrofitting and analysis are performed using the ANSYS program. The validated model is used to investigate the effect of bridge curvature, slab thickness, cross-frame stiffness and web-gap depth on the differential deflection and the distortion-induced stress. A substantial effect of curvature is noticed on girder differential deflection which proportionally affects the distortion-induced stress. Lastly, this study proposed two retrofitting techniques which are found efficient to extenuate the differential deflection and distortion stress about 50–60%.


Distortion stress Curved twin I-girder bridge Finite element analysis Out-plane bending Differential deflection Retrofitting 


Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.


  1. 1.
    Kim, C.W.; Kawatani, M.; Hwang, W.S.: Reduction of traffic-induced vibration of two-girder steel bridge seated on elastomeric bearings. Eng. Struct. 26, 2185–2195 (2004). CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  2. 2.
    Lindquist, W.; Ibrahim, A.; Tung, Y.; Motaleb, M.; Tobias, D.; Hindi, R.: Distortion-induced fatigue cracking in a seismically retrofitted steel bridge. J. Perform. Constr. Facil. 30(4), 04015068 (2016). CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  3. 3.
    Alavi, H.A.; Hasni, H.; Jiao, P.; Borchani, W.; Lajnef, N.: Fatigue cracking detection in steel bridge girders through a self-powered sensing concept. J. Constr. Res. 128, 19–38 (2017). CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  4. 4.
    Connor, R.J.; Fisher, J.W.: Identifying effective and ineffective retrofits for distortion fatigue cracking in steel bridges using field instrumentation. J. Bridge Eng. 11, 745–752 (2016). CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  5. 5.
    Hartman, A.S.; Hassel, H.L.; Adams, C.A.; Matamoros, A.B.; Rolfe, S.T.: Effects of cross-frame placement and skew on distortion-induced fatigue in steel bridges. J. Transp. Res. Board 2200, 62–68 (2010). CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  6. 6.
    Quigley J. R.: Analysis of Distortion-induced Fatigue Cracking of a Trapezoidal Steel Box Girder Bridge Including Retrofit Investigation (2009)Google Scholar
  7. 7.
    AASHTO.: AASHTO LRFD Bridge Design Specifications, 7th edn. AASHTO, Washington (2014)Google Scholar
  8. 8.
    Canadian Standards Association (CSA).: CAN/CSA -S6 88 Design of highway bridges. Canadian Standards Association (CSA), Ontario (1998)Google Scholar
  9. 9.
    Zhao, Y.; Roddis, K.W.M.: Fatigue behavior and retrofit investigation of distortion-induced web gap cracking. J. Bridge Eng. ASCE 12(6), 737–745 (2007). CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  10. 10.
    Zisan, M.B.; Hayashikawa, T.; He, X.: Dynamic response and distortion stress in curved multi girder bridge subjected to high-speed moving vehicles. J. Struct. Eng. 61A, 119–130 (2015). Google Scholar
  11. 11.
    Jajich, D.; Schultz, A.E.: Measurement and analysis of distortion-induced fatigue in multigirder steel bridges. J. Bridge Eng. 8(2), 84–91 (2003). CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  12. 12.
    Roddis, K.W.M.; Zhao, Y.: Finite element analysis of steel bridge distortion-induced fatigue. J. Bridge Eng. 8(5), 259–266 (2003). CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  13. 13.
    Berglund, E.M.; Schultz, A.E.: Girder differential deflection and distortion-induced fatigue in skew steel bridges. J. Bridge Eng. ASCE 11(2), 84–91 (2006). CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  14. 14.
    Awall, M.R.; Hayashikawa, T.; Matsumoto, T.; He, X.: Effects of bottom bracings on torsional dynamic characteristics of horizontally curved twin I-girder bridges with different curvatures. Earthq. Eng. Eng. Vib. 11, 149–162 (2012). CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  15. 15.
    Jajich, D.; Schultz, A.E.; Bergson, P.M.; Galambos, T.V.: Distortion-induced fatigue in multi-girder steel bridges. Retrieved from the University of Minnesota Digital Conservancy (2000).

Copyright information

© King Fahd University of Petroleum & Minerals 2018

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Department of Civil EngineeringChittagong University of Engineering and TechnologyChittagongBangladesh
  2. 2.Department of Civil EngineeringEast West UniversityDhakaBangladesh

Personalised recommendations