Analyzing the Crowd Evacuation Pattern of a Large Densely Populated Building
- 35 Downloads
Understanding crowd evacuation behavior is of utmost importance for large buildings in order to achieve efficient crowd monitoring and management. This paper presents the simulation and analysis of crowd evacuation pattern for a large building called Al Masjid An Nabawi, widely known as ‘the Haram,’ in Madinah, Saudi Arabia. Legion Evac software is employed to simulate the crowd evacuation. During simulation, Legion computes various metrics that holistically reflect the crowd evacuation pattern, which captures the crowd evacuation behavior. We analyze the magnitude and temporal variations with respect to the general evacuation patterns (GEP) of the building. The magnitude is analyzed using the t-test, which is a hypothesis testing method. However, the temporal variations are analyzed using cross-correlation analysis. The GEP captures the general crowd evacuation behavior (across all sections) of the building by aggregating the evacuation patterns of each section of the building. The crowd evacuation simulation resulted in an evacuation time of 21 min to evacuate a population of approximately 170,000. The analysis of evacuation patterns shows that the evacuation pattern of different sections of the building differs significantly in magnitude, but has significant temporal similarity with respect to GEP. Finally, insights are derived from the analysis results, which aid in efficient crowd monitoring and management.
KeywordsCrowd evacuation Simulation Legion Evac Crowd evacuation behavior Cross-correlation analysis Evacuation patterns
Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.
The authors would like to thank the Deanship of Scientific Research at Taibah University for their support to conduct this research work under research grant no. 434/4317.
- 1.Haron, F.; Alginahi, Y.M.; Kabir, M.N.; Mohamed, A.I.: Software evaluation for crowd evacuation software evaluation for crowd evacuation-case study: Al-Masjid An-Nabawi. Int. J. Comput. Sci. Issues (IJCSI) 6(2), 128–134 (2012)Google Scholar
- 2.Sarmady, S.: Modeling and Simulation of Movements and Behaviours in Large Crowd Using Cellular Automata. Master Thesis, Universiti Sains Malaysia (2009)Google Scholar
- 5.Qiu, F., Hu, X.: Exploiting spatial-temporal heterogeneity for agent-based simulation of pedestrian crowd behavior. Act. Based Model. Simul. 107–127 (2010)Google Scholar
- 6.Alginahi, Y.M.; Kabir, M.N.; Mohamed, A.I.: Optimization of high-crowd-density facilities based on discrete event simulation. Malays. J. Comput. Sci. 26(4), 312–29 (2013)Google Scholar
- 9.Nassar, K., Bayyoumi, A.: A simulation study of the effect of mosque design on egress times. In: Proceedings of the Winter Simulation Conference, Berlin, p. 110 (2012)Google Scholar
- 10.Kiyono, J., Mori, N.: Simulation of emergency evacuation behavior during a disaster by Use of elliptic distinct elements. In: 13th World Conference on Earthquake Engineering, vol. 134, pp. 1–6 (2004)Google Scholar
- 11.Alighadr, S., Fallahi, A., Kiyono, J., Fitrasha, N.R., Miyajima, M.: Emergency evacuation during a disaster. In: Study Case: TimcheMuzaffariyye–Tabriz BazaaIran, Conference Proceeding of 15 WCEE. Lisbon (2012)Google Scholar
- 20.Kim, S.; Guy, S.; Hillesland, K.; Zafar, B.; Gutub, A.; Manocha, D.: Velocity-based modeling of physical interactions in dense crowds. In: The Visual Computer. Springer (2014)Google Scholar
- 21.Curtis, S., Zafar, B., Gutub, A., Manocha, D.: Right of way: asymmetric agent interactions in crowds. In: The Visual Computer: International Journal of Computer Graphics. Springer, Berlin (2012). https://doi.org/10.1007/s00371-012-0769-x
- 23.Xu P., Cao K.: Review of research on simulation platform based on the crowd evacuation. In: Communications in Computer and Information Science, vol. 761, pp. 324–333. Springer, Singapore (2017)Google Scholar
- 24.Cassol, V.J., Musse, S.R., Jung, C.R., Badler, N.I.: Crowd simulation. In: Simulating Crowds in Egress Scenarios, pp. 19–45. Springer, Cham (2017)Google Scholar
- 26.Alginahi, Y.M.; Kabir, M.N.: Simulation of building evacuation: performance analysis and simplified model. Int. J. Adv. Comput. Sci. Appl. (IJACSA) 7(8), 10–17 (2016)Google Scholar
- 28.Ronchi, E., Kinsey, M.: Evacuation models of the future: insights from an online survey on user’s experiences and needs. In: Capote, J., Alvear, D. (eds.), Proceedings of the Advanced Research Workshop: Evacuation and Human Behaviour in Emergency Situations, pp. 145–155. Universidad de Cantabria (2011)Google Scholar
- 34.Rosenthal, R.; Rosnow, R.L.: Essentials of Behavioral Research: Methods and Data Analysis, 2nd edn. McGraw Hill, New York (1991)Google Scholar