Comparative Study on Flame Retardancy, Thermal, and Mechanical Properties of Glass Fiber Reinforced Polyester Composites with Ammonium Polyphosphate, Expandable Graphite, and Aluminum Tri-hydroxide
- 47 Downloads
The aim of this study is to enhance the flame retardant property of the glass fiber reinforced polyester composites by using intumescent flame retardants such as ammonium polyphosphate (APP) and/or expandable graphite (EG) in addition to aluminum tri-hydroxide (ATH). Flame retardant properties of the composites were tested by limiting oxygen index and UL-94 tests. Chemical characterization of the materials was done using Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy. Mechanical properties were evaluated by tensile test, and surface morphology analysis was performed by using stereomicroscope and scanning electron microscope. Thermal properties of the composites were characterized by thermogravimetry/differential thermal analyzer. The results showed that the flame retardancy of the composites was significantly improved by the addition of intumescent flame retardants with no considerable adverse effect on the mechanical properties. Thermal analysis data revealed that intumescent flame retardants increased the char yields of the composites. Also, the APP containing formulations yielded lower weight loss rates. To our knowledge, this is the first study investigating the flame retardancy, thermal, and mechanical properties of glass fiber reinforced polyester composite comprising ATH, APP, and EG in dual- or triple-flame retardant formulations.
KeywordsGlass fiber reinforced polyester composite Flame retardancy ATH EG APP
Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.
This work has been supported by TUBITAK in the scope of Industry Oriented Undergraduate Thesis Support Program (Project No. 1139B411600466). The authors would like to thank Fibrosan Glass Reinforced Polyester Industry and Trade Inc. for their collaboration, Poliya Polyester Industry, and Trade Inc. for the LOI test and Dokuz Eylul University, Center for Fabrication and Applications of Electronic Materials for UL-94 test.
- 4.Dholakiya, B.: Use of non-traditional fillers to reduce flammability of polyester resin composites. Polimeri 30(1), 10–17 (2009)Google Scholar
- 11.Wang, W.; He, K.; Dong, Q.; Zhu, N.; Fan, Y.; Wang, F.; Xia, Y.; Li, H.; Wang, J.; Yuan, Z.: Synergistic effect of aluminum hydroxide and expandable graphite on the flame retardancy of polyisocyanurate–polyurethane foams. J. Appl. Polym. Sci. 131(4), 39936 (2014)Google Scholar
- 16.Krassowski, D.; Hutchings, D.; Qureshi, S.: Expandable graphite flake as an additive for a new flame retardant resin. In: Fire Retardant Chemicals Association, Fall Meeting, Naples, Florida, pp. 137–146 (1996)Google Scholar
- 19.Knuutinen, U.; Kyllonen, P.: Two case studies of unsaturated polyester composite art objects. e-Preservation Sci. 3, 11–19 (2006)Google Scholar
- 20.Zhao, H.; Pang, X.; Zhai, Z.: Preparation and antiflame performance of expandable graphite modified with sodium hexametaphosphate. J. Polym. 2015, 821297 (2015)Google Scholar