Herpes simplex virus-1 as a rare etiology of isolated acute cerebellitis: case report and literature review

  • Cem PaketciEmail author
  • Pinar Edem
  • Canan Okumus
  • Fatma Ceren Sarioglu
  • Erhan Bayram
  • Semra Hiz
  • Uluç Yis
Case Report


Acute cerebellitis is one of the most common cerebellar disorders and occurs due to para-infectious, post-infectious, or post-vaccination cerebellar inflammation. Herpes simplex virus-1 (HSV-1) is known as a common infectious cause of sporadic encephalitis. Cerebellar involvement of HSV-1 is rare and almost always associated with meningoencephalitis. To date, HSV-1 has been identified as the cause of acute isolated cerebellitis in only two patients. Here we report another case of isolated acute cerebellitis caused by HSV-1 in a 20-month-old boy.


Cerebellar ataxia Cerebellitis Encephalitis Herpes simplex virus 1, human 


Compliance with ethical standards

Conflict of interest

The authors declare that they have no conflict of interest.


  1. Bradshaw MJ, Venkatesan A (2016) Herpes simplex virus-1 encephalitis in adults: pathophysiology, diagnosis, and management. Neurotherapeutics 13:493–508. CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  2. Ciardi M, Giacchetti G, Fedele CG, Tenorio A, Brandi A, Libertone R, Ajassa C, Borgese L, Delia S (2003) Acute cerebellitis caused by herpes simplex virus type 1. Clin Infect Dis 36:50–54CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  3. Connolly AM, Dodson WE, Prensky AL, Rust RS (1994) Course and outcome of acute cerebellar ataxia. Ann Neurol 35:673–679CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  4. De Bruecker Y, Claus F, Demaerel P, Ballaux F, Sciot R, Lagae L, Buyse G, Wilms G (2004) MRI findings in acute cerebellitis. Euro Radiol 14:1478–1483CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  5. Emelifeonwu JA, Shetty J, Kaliaperumal C, Gallo P, Sokol D, Soleiman H, Kandasamy J (2018) Acute cerebellitis in children: a variable clinical entity. J Child Neurol 33:675–684. CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  6. Lancella L, Esposito S, Galli ML, Bozzola E (2017) Acute cerebellitis in children: an eleven year retrospective multicentric study in Italy. Ital J Pediatr 43:54CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  7. Nussinovitch M, Prais D, Volovitz B, Shapiro R, Amir J (2003) Post-infectious acute cerebellar ataxia in children. Clin Pediatr (Phila) 42:581–584CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  8. Rozenberg F, Deback C, Agut H (2011) Herpes simplex encephalitis: from virus to therapy. Infect Disord Drug Targets 11:235–250CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  9. Skelly MJ, Burger AA, Adekola O (2012) Herpes simplex virus-1 encephalitis: a review of current disease management with three case reports. Antivir Chem Chemother 23:13–18. CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  10. Tlili-Graiess K, Mhiri Souei M, Mlaiki B, Arifa N, Moulahi H, Jemni Gharbi H, Yacoub M, Essoussi M (2006) Imaging of acute cerebellitis in children. Report of 4 cases. J Neuroradiol 33:38–44CrossRefGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© Journal of NeuroVirology, Inc. 2019

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Division of Pediatric Neurology, Department of PediatricsDokuz Eylül University Faculty of MedicineİzmirTurkey
  2. 2.Division of Pediatric Infectious Disease, Department of PediatricsDokuz Eylül University Faculty of MedicineİzmirTurkey
  3. 3.Division of Pediatric Radiology, Department of RadiologyDokuz Eylül University Faculty of MedicineİzmirTurkey

Personalised recommendations