JC virus identified in a patient with persistent and severe West Nile virus disease
West Nile virus is a notable cause of neuroinvasive disease, damage to the central nervous system, or even death. In this study, using metagenomics analysis and quantitative real-time PCR validation, we identified a JC virus infection in urine and cerebrospinal fluid samples of a West Nile virus patient with severe neurological symptoms and extended disease. JC virus is known to be involved in neurological complications, especially in immunocompromised individuals thus suggesting that the coinfection with JC virus is involved with the West Nile virus infection persistence and severe symptoms. JC virus was identified in urine samples from additional West Nile virus patients via quantitative real-time PCR, however, JC virus was not found in any cerebrospinal fluid samples of West Nile virus patients, suggesting that JC virus does not regularly infect the central nervous system of WNV patients. Overall, this study highlights the importance of identifying infection by opportunistic viruses in already-diagnosed patients and highlights the advantages of next-generation sequencing and metagenomics for viral diagnosis.
KeywordsWest Nile virus JC virus Infection Human High-throughput nucleotide sequencing
We would like to thank Tal Levin, Ravit Koren, and Osnat Halperin for help with processing samples.
This work was supported by internal sources.
Compliance with ethical standards
Conflict of interest
The authors declare that they have no conflict of interest.
Helsinki approval has been given for human samples used in this study.
- Delbue S, Elia F, Carloni C, Tavazzi E, Marchioni E, Carluccio S, Signorini L, Novati S, Maserati R, Ferrante P (2012) JC virus load in cerebrospinal fluid and transcriptional control region rearrangements may predict the clinical course of progressive multifocal leukoencephalopathy. J Cell Physiol 227(10):3511–3517 http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/22253012 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
- Grabowski MK, Viscidi RP, Margolick JB, Jacobson LP, Shah KV (2009) Investigation of pre-diagnostic virological markers for progressive multifocal leukoencephalopathy in human immunodeficiency virus-infected patients. J Med Virol 81(7):1140–1150 http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/19475619 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
- Hoffacker V, Schultz A, Tiesinga JJ, Gold R, Schalke B, Nix W, Kiefer R, Müller-Hermelink HK, Marx A (2000) Thymomas alter the T-cell subset composition in the blood: a potential mechanism for thymoma-associated autoimmune disease. Blood 96(12):3872–3879 http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/11090072 Google Scholar
- Lustig Y, Mannasse B, Koren R, Katz-Likvornik S, Hindiyeh M, Mandelboim M, Dovrat S, Sofer D, Mendelson E (2016b) Superiority of West Nile virus RNA detection in whole blood for diagnosis of acute infection. J Clin Microbiol 54(9):2294–2297 http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/27335150 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
- Zwolińska K, Knysz B, Gąsiorowski J, Pazgan-Simon M, Gładysz A, Sobczyński M, Piasecki E (2013) Frequency of human endogenous retroviral sequences (HERV) K113 and K115 in the Polish population, and their effect on HIV infection. PLoS One 8(10):e77820 http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/24204983 CrossRefGoogle Scholar