JC virus identified in a patient with persistent and severe West Nile virus disease

  • Neta S. ZuckermanEmail author
  • Victoria Indenbaum
  • Ron Milo
  • Ella Mendelson
  • Yaniv Lustig
Case Report


West Nile virus is a notable cause of neuroinvasive disease, damage to the central nervous system, or even death. In this study, using metagenomics analysis and quantitative real-time PCR validation, we identified a JC virus infection in urine and cerebrospinal fluid samples of a West Nile virus patient with severe neurological symptoms and extended disease. JC virus is known to be involved in neurological complications, especially in immunocompromised individuals thus suggesting that the coinfection with JC virus is involved with the West Nile virus infection persistence and severe symptoms. JC virus was identified in urine samples from additional West Nile virus patients via quantitative real-time PCR, however, JC virus was not found in any cerebrospinal fluid samples of West Nile virus patients, suggesting that JC virus does not regularly infect the central nervous system of WNV patients. Overall, this study highlights the importance of identifying infection by opportunistic viruses in already-diagnosed patients and highlights the advantages of next-generation sequencing and metagenomics for viral diagnosis.


West Nile virus JC virus Infection Human High-throughput nucleotide sequencing 



We would like to thank Tal Levin, Ravit Koren, and Osnat Halperin for help with processing samples.


This work was supported by internal sources.

Compliance with ethical standards

Conflict of interest

The authors declare that they have no conflict of interest.

Informed consent

Helsinki approval has been given for human samples used in this study.


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Copyright information

© Journal of NeuroVirology, Inc. 2019

Authors and Affiliations

  • Neta S. Zuckerman
    • 1
    Email author
  • Victoria Indenbaum
    • 1
  • Ron Milo
    • 2
  • Ella Mendelson
    • 1
    • 3
  • Yaniv Lustig
    • 1
  1. 1.Central Virology Laboratory, Israel Ministry of HealthChaim Sheba Medical CenterTel-HashomerIsrael
  2. 2.Department of NeurologyBarzilai Medical CenterAshkelonIsrael
  3. 3.School of Public Health, Sackler Faculty of MedicineTel-Aviv UniversityTel AvivIsrael

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