Post-transplant primary central nervous system lymphoma after Epstein-Barr virus cerebellitis

  • Cristina Valencia-SanchezEmail author
  • Kristen K. Steenerson
  • Katalin Kelemen
  • Robert Orenstein
  • Shimon Kusne
  • Marie F. Grill
Case Report


Post-transplantation lymphoproliferative disorder (PTLD) is a complication of solid organ and hematopoietic stem cell transplantation. Cases with isolated central nervous system (CNS) disease are rare. Epstein-Barr virus (EBV) plays a causative role. We present a patient with EBV cerebellitis documented 5 months prior to development of primary CNS PTLD (PCNS-PTLD). This case report demonstrates progression from EBV CNS infection to lymphoproliferative disorder, highlighting the importance of serial clinical and imaging monitoring in transplant patients post-EBV CNS infection. PCNS-PTLD should always be considered in the differential diagnosis for transplant patients presenting with CNS symptoms, even in cases with no evidence of EBV viremia. Earlier diagnosis and appropriate treatment could result in improved outcomes.


Post-transplant lymphoproliferative disorder Neurological complications solid organ transplant Primary central nervous system lymphoma Epstein-Barr virus encephalitis 


Compliance with ethical standards

Conflict of interest

The authors declare that they have no conflict of interest.


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Copyright information

© Journal of NeuroVirology, Inc. 2019

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Division of NeurologyMayo Clinic ArizonaScottsdaleUSA
  2. 2.Otology & Neurotology DivisionStanford Ear InstitutePalo AltoUSA
  3. 3.Division of Laboratory Medicine and PathologyMayo Clinic ArizonaPhoenixUSA
  4. 4.Division of Infectious DiseasesMayo Clinic ArizonaPhoenixUSA

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