Zika virus outbreak in New Caledonia and Guillain-Barré syndrome: a case-control study
Zika virus (ZIKV) infection has been associated with neurologic disorders including Guillain-Barré syndrome (GBS). In New Caledonia during the ZIKV outbreak (2014–2015), case-control and retrospective studies have been performed to assess the link between ZIKV and GBS. Among the 15 cases included, 33% had evidence of a recent ZIKV infection compared to only 3.3% in the 30 controls involved. All patients were Melanesian, had facial diplegia and similar neurophysiological pattern consistent with acute inflammatory demyelinating polyneuropathy, and recovered well. Furthermore, during the peak of ZIKV transmission, we observed a number of GBS cases higher than the calculated upper limit, emphasizing the fact that ZIKV is now a major trigger of GBS.
KeywordsGuillain-Barré syndrome Case control study Zika virus New Caledonia
We thank Julie Sevila and Jean-Paul Grangeon (New Caledonia Health Department, Noumea) and Magali Teurlai (Institut Pasteur in New Caledonia, Noumea) for fruitful discussion in setting up the protocol. We thank Cyrille Goarant (Institut Pasteur in New Caledonia, Noumea) for revising the manuscript. We thank Vincent Richard (Institut Pasteur in New Caledonia, Noumea) for statistical analysis.
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Conflict of interests
The authors declare that they have no conflict of interest.