Mammal Research

, Volume 64, Issue 2, pp 191–202 | Cite as

Spatiotemporal inter-predator and predator–prey interactions of mammalian species in a tropical savanna and deciduous forest in Indonesia

  • Satyawan PudyatmokoEmail author
Original Paper


An understanding of the interspecific interactions within communities is required to explain the mechanisms promoting carnivore co-existence and how prey respond behaviorally to predators. In this research, inter-predator and predator–prey interactions in the tropical savanna and deciduous forests in Baluran National Park, East Java, Indonesia, were investigated. The pattern of interactions was assessed with respect to intraguild predation theory for inter-predator interactions and landscape of fear theory for predator–prey interactions. Data from camera traps were used to examine spatiotemporal activities of animals. The results indicated no evidence of spatial avoidance of solitary predator leopards (Panthera pardus ssp. melas) caused by the presence of social predator dholes (Cuon alpinus), and the data showed that the probability of the occupancy of leopards increases when dholes are present. Within the predator–prey interaction, only dhole and banteng (Bos javanicus) showed a significantly negative spatial interaction. The probability of occupancy of Javan deer increased when dholes and leopards were present; that of the muntjac and the buffalo increased when dholes were present and decreased when leopards were present. By contrast, the segregation of temporal activity was confirmed for all pairs of species, both for inter-predator and predator–prey species. The findings of this research affirmed that temporal interaction was stronger than spatial interaction in determining the inter-predator and predator–prey co-occurrence in the tropical savannah and deciduous forests.


Intraguild predation Bos javanicus Cuon alpinus Panthera pardus Conditional two-species occupancy model Landscape of fear 



I would like to thank the Ministry of Environment and Forestry for permitting me to conduct research in BNP. I want to thank to Arief Budiman for assisting me during the fieldwork.

Funding information

The study received financial support from the Norwegian Ministry of Foreign Affairs through its embassy in Jakarta.


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Copyright information

© Mammal Research Institute, Polish Academy of Sciences, Białowieża, Poland 2018

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Laboratory of Wildlife, Faculty of ForestryGadjah Mada UniversityYogyakartaIndonesia

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