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Gigantism, taphonomy and palaeoecology of Basiloceras, a new oncocerid genus from the Middle Devonian of the Tafilalt (Morocco)

  • Alexander PohleEmail author
  • Christian Klug
  • Mischa Haas
Regular Research Article

Abstract

The genus Basiloceras gen. nov. containing the two species B. goliath sp. nov. and B. david sp. nov. is described. It belongs to the Acleistoceratidae within the Oncocerida. Both species are from the Middle Devonian of the Tafilalt (Morocco). The genus exhibits a large interspecific size range between the small Eifelian B. david sp. nov. and the Givetian B. goliath sp. nov., the largest Devonian oncocerid currently known, altogether only second to some fragmentary remains of Calchasiceras from the Carboniferous of Russia. Several other large species are mainly known from the late Emsian of Bohemia and the Eifelian of Germany. The holotype of B. goliath sp. nov. contains numerous epicoles, trace fossils and shell debris, which are discussed in the context of its taphonomy. Compared to other oncocerids, Basiloceras is characterised by a short body chamber, which might be related to buoyancy regulation. In contrast to some older publications, we do not regard breviconic oncocerids with contracted aperture as benthic or nektobenthic animals, but instead, we think that they dwelled in the water column.

Keywords

Oncocerida Cephalopoda Gigantism Epicoles Taphonomy Buoyancy 

Notes

Acknowledgements

We thank the Swiss National Foundation for financial support (Project Number 200020_132870). We are thankful to the Ministère de l’Energie, des Mines, de l’Eau et de l’Environnement (Direction du Développement Minier, Division du Patrimoine, Rabat, Morocco) for providing working permits. Markus Hebeisen (Zürich, Switzerland) is thanked for advice for the preparation of the holotype of Basiloceras goliath. Said Oukherbouch (Tafraoute, Morocco) collected the large specimen and provided further information about its locality. We are grateful to Adam T. Halamski (Warszawa, Poland) for his help with the identification of the brachiopods and to Olev Vinn (Tartu, Estonia) for comments on the microconchids. Vojtěch Turek (Prague, Czech Republic) is acknowledged for showing us Barrande’s collection. We thank the reviewers David Evans (Peterborough, England), Štepan Manda (Prague, Czech Republic) and Björn Kröger (Helsinki, Finland), whose comments helped to improve the manuscript. Daniel Marty (Basel, Switzerland) is thanked for his editorial work.

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© Akademie der Naturwissenschaften Schweiz (SCNAT) 2019

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Paläontologisches Institut und Museum, Universität ZürichZurichSwitzerland
  2. 2.Department of Earth SciencesETH ZürichZurichSwitzerland
  3. 3.Department of Surface Waters Research and ManagementEawagDübendorfSwitzerland

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