The potential for physicochemical driving forces facilitating topical transport of the lipid-soluble drug oxaprozin (OXA) was investigated using surface-enhanced Raman spectroscopy (SERS) in this study. Azone, iontophoresis (IP), and sonophoresis (SP) were combined and performed on mouse skin for the OXA transdermal penetration, and the synergistic effect was analyzed using Raman spectroscopy. The data of characteristic peak intensity were processed with overlapping peak resolving and standard normalization. The results showed that Azone promoted the transdermal penetration of OXA (5.9-fold greater than the OXA concentration of normal penetration); SP enhanced OXA transdermal penetration (5.5-fold); IP enhanced OXA transdermal penetration (4.2-fold); the combined application of Azone and SP (Azone+SP) and SP+IP can improve the enhancement coefficient of OXA transdermal penetration (8.4-fold and 6.1-fold, > 5.9, > 5.5, > 4.2), and their combined application has a synergistic effect; Azone+IP does not have a synergistic effect while the enhancement coefficient of Azone+IP (5.3-fold, < 5.9) and Azone+SP+IP (7.2-fold, < 8.4) was slightly reduced. As for the drug OXA, Azone+SP is an effective method of transdermal penetration.
the spectral peak integral intensities at 1283 cm−1 and 1660 cm−1
R1616/1283 and R1616/1660
The spectral peak intensity ratios of 1616 cm−1/1283 cm−1 and 1616 cm−1/1660 cm−1
R949/1283 and R949/1660
The spectral peak intensity ratios of 949 cm−1/1283 cm−1 and 949 cm−1/1660 cm−1
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The authors wish to thank for the support of the Key Laboratory of Specialty Fiber Optics and Optical Access Networks (SKLSFO2017-02 and SKLSFO2018-05).
This work was funded by Natural Science Foundation of China (NSFC) (61575120, 61475095).
Compliance with ethical standards
All institutional and national guidelines for the care and use of laboratory animals were followed. The experiments comply with the current laws of the country in which they were performed.
Conflict of interest
The authors declare that they have no conflict of interest.
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1.Key Laboratory of Specialty Fiber Optics and Optical Access Networks, Joint International Research Laboratory of Specialty Fiber Optics and Advanced Communication, Shanghai Institute for Advanced Communication and Data Science, Institute of Biomedical Engineering, School of Communication and Information EngineeringShanghai UniversityShanghaiChina
2.College of Medical InstrumentsShanghai University of Medicine & Health SciencesShanghaiChina